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"A" and "C" Engineer --
This training covers routine servicing responsibilities with authority to declare an aircraft or engine fit for flight; first level training license.

ACV --
Air-Cushion Vehicle: a hovercraft. (see hovercraft)

Aerodrome --
An early British name for a small airfield, or landing strip; now commonly called an airport or airfield.

Aerodynamic(s) --
A branch of dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other gaseous fluids and with the forces acting on bodies in motion relative to such fluids.

Aeronautical Engineering --
The particular application of science and mathematics to the operation of aircraft, by which the properties of matter and the sources of energy in nature are made useful to people.

Afterburner --
A device incorporated into the tail pipe of a turbojet engine for injecting fuel into the exhaust gases and burning it to provide extra thrust.

Air Force Plaid/Tartan --
The colours blue, maroon, and white in a tartan pattern officially became the Royal Canadian Air Force tartan on August 15, 1942. This tartan pattern is internationally recognized as belonging to the RCAF and was designed by Hall of Fame inductee Elmer F ullerton.

AOS --
Air Observer School

Apron --
The extensive paved part of an airport immediately adjacent to the terminal area or hangars.

ATA --
Air Transport Auxiliary

ATC --
Air Transport Command. (see Ferry Command)

Avro Arrow Project --
A project to create an advanced, supersonic, twin engined, all weather interceptor jet developed by A.V. Roe of Canada from 1949-1959.

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"B" and "D" Engineer --
This training allows sign-out priviledges for both airframe and engines after a major overhaul; senior level license.

Barnstorm --
To pilot one's airplane in sight-seeing flights with passengers or in exhibition stunts in an unscheduled course, especially in rural areas.

Barren Lands --
A vast, desolate region of the Northwest Territories, which extends into Canada's Arctic.

British Commonwealth Air Training Plan(BCATP) --
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was established in 1940 between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada to develop training grounds where instruction could be carried out away from the battleground, particularly Great Britain which wa s vulnerable to attack.

Belt Of Orion Award --
Founded by Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame to honor organizations, groups, societies, or associations which have made outstanding contributions to the advancement of aviation in Canada.

Boy Airman --
An underage recruit; pilot in training.

Burwash Expedition 1930 --
The object was to check the location of the North Magnetic Pole, take a series of overlapping photographs of the Canadian Arctic Coastline for mapping purposes, and to search for further traces of the ill-fated Sir John Franklin Expedition of 1845. Major Lauchie T. Burwash of the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch of the Department of the Interior headed the expedition. Hall of Fame member, Walter Gilbert, piloted the expedition.

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CAF --
Canadian Air Force 1920-1923

Camp Borden/Canadian Forces Base Borden --
Named after Sir Frederick Borden, former militia minister (1896-1911). The camp was created in 1916 as a training ground for fliers and soldiers in WWl.

Canadarm --
The name given to the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, Canada's contribution to the U.S. Space Shuttle. The Canadarm is a complex, 6 degrees of freedom, remotely controlled manipulator used for cargo deployment and retrieval from and to the shuttle's c argo bay. It functions much like a human arm with six joints and a snare-type end effector which acts as a hand. The Canadarm first flew in November, 1981 on the second Space Shuttle flight and was declared operational a year later, after three succces ful test flights.

Canadian Expeditionary Forces --
A special task force dedicated to military service abroad or to unknown territories.

CANOL Project --
A 10cm, in diameter, oil pipeline built between 1942-1944 from Norman Wells, N.W.T., 1000km to Whitehorse, Yukon; a failed joint project undertaken by the U.S. Armed Forces and the Canadian Government to secure an oil supply to fuel defense efforts in the Northwest.

Cowl Flap --
The removable front cover of an aircraft forward of the doors which is attached to the windshield and instrument board and helps to regulate engine temperature.

CPA --
Canadian Pacific Air Lines

Croix de Guerre --
Established in 1915 to commemorate individual mentions in despatches. The cross is awarded to soldiers, sailors and officers of all ranks, also including men of Allied Forces mentioned in a despatch from the general officer commanding an Army, Army Corps , Division, Brigade, C.O. of a regiment, or the corresponding units of Naval forces.

Cycle Corps --
A military special unit of auxiliary arms and services utilizing motorcycles as the primary mode of transportation and defense.

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D-Day --
A day set for launching an operation: June 6, 1944, on which allied forces began the invasion of France in WWII.

DEW Line --
Distant Early Warning Line: an early radar detection system established by NATO forces during the Cold War to identify enemy activity or aircraft within NATO airspace.

DND --
Department of National Defense

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Ellsworth Expedition 1933-1935 --
Lincoln Ellsworth, an American explorer, launched an expedition of the South Pole; the crossing of Antarctica. The expedition bridged Antarctica for the first time. Herbert Hollick-Kenyon, CAHF member piloted the expedition. The two covered 3500 km and claimed a large piece of land for the United States.

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Ferry Command/Service --
Established in 1941 under the name Royal Air Force Ferry Command to improve aircraft deliveries from North America to Britain during WWII.

Fixed-Wing Aircraft --
A type of airplane: a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft that has fixed wings from which it derives most of its lift.

Flying Boat Squadron --
An air force unit higher than a flight and lower than a group which specifically uses seaplanes equipped with a hull designed for floating.

Franks Flying Suit --
An anti-gravity suit designed by Wilbur Franks to solve the problems related to pilot blackout due to radial acceleration and deceleration, in high gravity maneuvers.

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Gemini and Mercury Programs --
Gemini and Mercury were spacecraft designed by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which required the development of boosters to enable launching.

Geodetic Survey of Canada --
An organization established to study the earth's surface by use of applied mathematics and geographical points.

Gravitational Force --
A force manifested by acceleration toward each other of two free material particles or bodies of radiant energy of great amounts; also known as: G Force.

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High G Manoeuvre --
An intended and controlled variation from a straight and level flight path, often at high speed and varying elevations in order to secure an advantage.

Hovercraft --
A vehicle that is supported above the surface of land or water by a cushion of air produced by downwardly directed fans.

Hudson Strait Expedition 1927-1928 --
The Dominion Government of Canada decided to complete the Hudson Bay Railway and its northern terminal on Hudson Bay via the Hudson Strait. The RCAF received the major portion of responsibilities in the organization of the expedition to undertake an exha ustive study on the requirements necessary for the safety of ship navigation in those waters as an alternate export route to Europe. Under the command of Hall of Fame member T.A. Lawrence, the expedition, in addition to collecting information on ice and meteorological conditions in the Strait, tested the feasibility of using aircraft as an aid to navigation and the practicality of establishing air bases in the area.

Hydrofoil --
A motorboat equipped with metal plates or fins attached by struts fore and aft for lifting the hull clear of the water as speed is increased.

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Jet-Assisted Take Off.

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Levanevsky Search --
In 1937 a rescue mission was launched in an attempt to locate Sigmund Levanevsky, a Russian pilot who went missing on a trans-polar flight to Fairbanks, Alaska from Moscow with five companions on board. The search, although unsuccessful, was classified a s one of aviation's greatest aerial searches covering the western Arctic from Siberia through Alaska and the Yukon Territory.

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Manhattan Project --
An allied venture undertaken 1943-1945 and headquartered in the U.S to develop the first atom bombs, utilizing uranium.

MacAlpine Rescue --
In November 1929, Colonel C.D.H. MacAlpine and fellow Dominion Explorers were rescued during a mineral exploration in the North West Territories. The party of fliers were grounded due to low fuel supplies and mechanical problems and they were forced to h ead out on foot across the Arctic. Due to failure to arrive at several checkpoints and a breakdown in communication, the party was deemed lost and a rescue mission by air was launched. The rescue involved many air miles flown in Arctic conditions.

MID: Mention in Despatches --
Prior to 1990 an MID award was given to notify higher authorities of deserving officers' service in the field or at sea (originally); since the mid-1840s, the practice has been extended to all ranks. In 1990, the design of the emblem was changed slightly and given to members of the Canadian Forces in active service for valiant conduct, dedication to duty, or other distinguished service as deemed by the recommendation of the Chief of Defense Staff.

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization: established in 1949 and was Canada's first peacetime military arrangement between the U.S., Great Britain and western Europe due to aggressive military expansion in the Soviet Union.

North American Aerospace Defense Command. NORAD was originally called North American Air Defense Agreement in 1957, and changed to its current title in 1981. The agreement joined the U.S and Canadian Air Forces in an attempt to secure North America fro m air attack and then from nuclear missiles.

Northwest Staging Route --
The Canadian and U.S Armed Forces between 1941 and 1945 secured a North American Defense Route in the Canadian North to Alaska and the Soviet Union by building several manned air bases.

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Operation Muskox --
A joint effort by the Canadian Army and the RCAF undertaken in 1946 to test the possibilities of moving men and motorized transportation across the Canadian Arctic.

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Pathfinder Squadron --
405 Maritime Patrol Squadron
The first RCAF bomber squadron overseas during WW2 and the only RCAF Pathfinder Squadron. Missions involved exploring regions to mark out new routes, lines of attack and targets.

Peenemunde --
A village in Northeast Germany on an island at the mouth of the Peene Estuary.

Portable Nose Hangar --
A canvas and wood frame structure approximately 15 sq. feet in size. The nose of the aircraft, which housed the engine and fuselage, would be sheltered by the canvas curtain which was fastened around the nose. The hangar could be heated by a small stove and repairs could be carried out in relative comfort or the engine could be warmed in cold temperatures to ease starting.

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RAF --
Royal Air Force

Royal Canadian Auxiliary Air Force

Royal Canadian Air Force

Royal Canadian Air Force Association

Royal Canadian Flying Club Association

RFC --
Royal Flying Corps

Royal Naval Air Service

Rotary-Wing Aircraft --
A helicopter.

R-Theta --
A distance and bearing computer, that automatically and continuously without the usual radio or radar links with a base, tells the pilot how many straight-line miles he is from his base or his target and what direction or compass heading he must fly to ar rive there.

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Sailplane --
A glider of such design that it is able to rise in an upward air current.

Short Range Navigation: the project began in 1949 and was completed in 1957. A mapping and navigation system which required that every piece of equipment needed for navigation be pre-positioned by sea or by aircraft, particularly in the Arctic where accu rate mapping was necessary.

Silver Dart --
The first powered, heavier than air machine to fly in Canada. Designed and built by the Aerial Experiment Association, 1907-1909, which included Alexander Graham Bell, J.A.D. McCurdy, and Glenn H. Curtiss.

Short Takeoff and Landing

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Tetrahedral Kite --
A lighter than air machine designed to carry the weight of a person. The shape was somewhat triangular with a fourth side open underneath. It consisted of small silk cells stitched together to connect a lightweight wooden structure. The idea was that o f Alexander Graham Bell whose aims were to first build a kite capable of lifting a man and then to construct a kite aerodynamically sound, with room in its tetrahedral corpus for a passenger and an engine.

Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) --
Trans-Canada Air Lines was Canada's first national air line designed for passenger service. The company was established by C.D. Howe in 1937. The name changed to Air Canada in 1965.

Trans-Canada Air Pageant --
The goal was to show Canadians how aviation was progressing in Canada and to stimulate interest in all branches of Canadian aviation. The pageant was launched in Hamilton, Ontario on July 1, 1931 and journeyed all across Canada and parts of the mid-weste rn United States, returning to Hamilton on September 12, 1931. The pageant presented 26 flying displays with over 300,000 spectators across Canada, many of whom had their first glimpse of aviation.

Trans-Canada McKee Trophy --
The oldest and highest aviation award in Canada awarded in recognition of outstanding achievement in the field of air operations. The award was established in 1927 by an American John Dalzell McKee, to the people of Canada, to commemorate the first trans -Canada seaplane flight. The plane was piloted by McKee and navigated by Squadron Leader Earl Goddfrey who were the first to fly the Douglas seaplane across North America. The trophy is owned by the Canadian Military and presented by the Canadian Aerona utics and Space Institute.

Triangulation --
The measuring of a given area to determine distance, height, or location by a network of triangles into which any part of the earth's surface is divided in surveying and mapping.

Tundra Tire --
Balloon tires and wheels for use on aircraft in the far north. The large tires inflated under low pressure had many benefits: landing on various types of northern terrain such as ice, snow, rocky plateaus, and soft muskeg, was made easy and allowed for l ess tire wear; improved traction; absorption of landing shocks when aircraft land on rough terrain.

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United States Army Air Forces

United States Air Force

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Variable Pitch Propeller --
The first variable pitch propeller was made at Peterboro, England July, 1918. This model had mechanical brakes and operated very smoothly at 1,550 revolutions per minute. Later, in the 1920s, Canadian Vickers Company and W.R. Turnbull under a grant from the Dominion Government of Canada, created a second propeller which helped to improve take-off, climb, increase ceiling and lower fuel consumption at best cruising speed.

Vertical Take Off and Landing

VX10 Squadron --
Experimental Squadron Ten was formed on November 5, 1952 at Shearwater, Nova Scotia and remained there until June 30, 1970. The Royal Canadian Navy formed the squadron to test new aircraft, new aircraft equipment, and weapons projects in adverse conditio ns. One of the most significant contributions of the squadron was its role in Anti Submarine Warfare.

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Worth Oil Dilution System --
One of the greatest aides to cold weather flying operations in Canada. It was introduced by T. W. Siers into Canada in 1939. The original system was developed by Weldon Worth, a mechanical engineer with the United States Army Air Corps. It provided for the thinning of circulating oil prior to stopping the aircraft engine. The diluted oil then allowed the motor to be turned over quite freely, even after standing idle in sub-zero temperatures. Successful starts were made without engine heating in temp eratures as low as -35 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Zeppelin --
A rigid airship consisting of a cylindrical trussed and covered frame supported by internal gas cells.

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Glossary of Post Nominals

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Note: The asterisk, when used in conjunction with a particular award, illustrates how many times it was won. For example, CB* indicates that the Companion, Order of The Bath was won twice, CB** indicates that the Companion, Order of The Bath was won three times.


AFC --
Air Force Cross -- Instituted in 1918, the AFC was awarded to officers and warrant officers for courage or devotion of duty while flying, though not in active operations against the enemy.

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CB --
Companion, Order of The Bath -- Instituted in 1399, the CB was awarded to senior and junior officers for services in action that had been Mentioned in Despatches.

CBE --
Commander, Order of The British Empire -- Instituted in 1917, the OBE rewarded commanders of the army, navy and airforce for services rendered of a non-combatant nature.

CC --
Companion, Order of Canada -- Instituted in 1967, the CM was awarded to those who exemplify the hightest qualities of citizenship.

CD --
Canadian Forces Decoration -- Instituted in 1950, the CD was awarded to all ranks of both the Regular and Reserve Forces who complete 12 years' service in stipulated conditions.

CM --
Member, Order of Canada -- Instituted in 1967, the CM was awarded to those who exemplify the hightest qualities of citizenship.

CMM --
Commander of the Order of Military -- The Order was established to provide a worthy means of recognizing conspicuous merit and exceptional service by members of the Canadian Forces both regular and reserve. T he Chief of the Defense Staff is by virtue of that office the, the Principal Commander of the Order. Appointments are made by the Governor General of Canada for outstanding meritorious service in duties of great responsiblilty. Only officers of Brigadie r-General/Commodore and above are eligeble to be appointed a Commander.

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DCM --
Distinguished Conduct Medal -- Instituted in 1894 to reward members of the Colonial Forces for distinguished, gallant and good conduct in the field. The Canadian issue is extremely rare, with only one being known.

DFC --
Distinguished Flying Cross -- Instituted in 1918, the DFC was awarded to officers and warrant officers who displayed courage or devotion to duty while flying in active operations against the enemy.

DFM --
Distinguished Flying Medal -- Instituted in 1918, the DFM rewarded Non-Commissioned Officers and men for bravery while flying on operations against the enemy.

DSC --
Distinguished Service Cross -- Instituted in 1901, the DSC was awarded for for meritorious or distinguished services before the enemy.

DSO --
Distinguished Service Order -- Instituted in 1886, the DSO rewarded officers below the rank of major for distinguishing themselves in active service against the enemy.

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ED --
Efficiency Decoration -- Instituted on October 17, 1930 for twenty years continuous commissioned service by officers of the territorial and auxiliary forces of Britain and the Commonwealth. Recipients had to ha ve consistently high standards of conduct and training.

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MBE --
Officer, Order of The British Empire -- Instituted in 1917, the OBE rewarded those officers of the army, navy and airforce for services rendered of a non-combatant nature.

MC --
Military Cross -- Instituted in 1914, the MC rewarded officers with the rank of Captain or below, or warrant officers for gallantry.

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OBE --
Officer, Order of the British Empire -- Instituted in 1917, the OBE rewarded those members of the army, navy and airfoce for services rendered of a non-combatant nature.

OC --
Officer, Order of Canada -- Instituted in 1967, the OC was awarded to those who exemplify the hightest qualities of citizenship.

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VC --
Victoria Cross -- Instituted in 1856, the VC was awarded for acts of outstanding gallantry.

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