There were a number of rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada in 1837.

Lower Canada
Rampant French Canadian Nationalism caused the rebellions in Lower Canada. The French Canadians wanted more power from the anglophones and church, both of whom controlled the province. Inspired by the American Revolution, they wanted the right to spend their tax revenues as they saw fit, in the colony. As well they were becoming threatened by an influx of Anglo emigrants. The French members of the assembly finally refused to vote, causing a virtual shutdown of all public services. The francophones started holding mass rallies in support of independence, and talk of violence became common, and a real possibility. In the country there was widespread civil unrest, and anglophone and francophone groups were clashing in the streets of the cities. The British sent in troops to quell the disturbances, and despite brave resistance, the movement was crushed. A few leaders and Patriotes escaped to the United States, and with American support tried to mount a second rebellion in 1838. They were less organized than before, and were crushed within a week.
Upper Canada
The radical arm of the Reform Movement in Upper Canada led the rebellion. The opposition parties were concerned with the patronage policies of those in control of the Assembly. The Reform Party won control of the Assembly in 1828 and 1834. The British Government sent the Lieutenant Governor to appease the Reformers, but all he did was insure that the conservatives won the next election. This caused an extreme division of the Reformers to split off. Between December 5th and the 8th close to 1000 men met at Montgomery's Tavern to bear arms against the British. A few skirmishes ensued, but almost no one was injured. The radicals went to the United States, and with American assistance sent many small, yet bothersome raids into the Canadas. This resulted in even the moderate reformers being persecuted as well as the United States and Britain coming to the verge of war.
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