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Positive Rabies in Canada

Rabies is a viral disease that attacks the central nervous system of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Once symptoms appear, rabies is always fatal in animals and people. In Canada the animals that most often transmit rabies are foxes, skunks, bats, and raccoons.

Data on confirmed cases of rabies are compiled and updated annually.

Note: The term "clinical cases" refers to cattle, sheep, goats, swine, and horses only. These are animals that are symptomatic, but that are not diagnostically confirmed. However, they are considered to be positive for rabies, due to their close association in both time and location to a laboratory-confirmed case (e.g. a group of sheep showing clinical signs of rabies that are flock members with a sheep diagnostically confirmed to be infected with rabies). These symptomatic sheep would be considered by the CFIA to be "clinical cases" without confirmatory diagnosis.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to June 30, 2011

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs - - - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 2.27
Cats - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - 2 4.55
Bovine - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 2.27
Equine - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 2.27
Caprine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ovine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Skunks - - - - 11 7 - - - - - - 18 40.91
Bats - - 2 - 3 - 5 2 - - - - 12 27.27
Foxes 8 - - - - - - 1 - - - - 9 20.46
Raccoons - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Wolves - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Badger - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Antelope - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 8 - 2 - 15 9 6 4 - - - - 44 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Alberta and the Yukon Territory.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.
* No clinical cases.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2010

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs - - - - 3 - - - - - - - 3 2.44
Cats - - - 1 - 3 - - - - - - 4 3.25
Bovine - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.81
Equine - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.81
Caprine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ovine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Skunks - - - - 17 33 10 - - - - - 60 48.78
Bats - - 5 2 1 2 29 7 1 1 - - 48 39.03
Foxes 6 - - - - - - - - - - - 6 4.88
Raccoons - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Wolves - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Badger - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Antelope - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 6 - 5 3 21 40 39 7 1 1 - - 123 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and the Yukon Territory.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.
* No clinical cases.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2009

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs 2 - - - 2 2 - 3 - - - - 9 6.21
Cats - - - - 3 - - - - - - - 3 2.07
Bovine - - - - - 2 6 - - - - - 8 5.52
Equine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Caprine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ovine - - - - - - 3 - - - - - 3 2.07
Skunks - - - - 15 24 8 2 - - - - 49 33.79
Bats - - 9 2 4 1 29 9 - - 1 - 55 37.93
Foxes 7 - - - - 2 3 1 - - - - 13 8.96
Raccoons - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Wolves 3 - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - 5 3.45
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Badger - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Antelope - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 12 - 9 2 24 32 49 16 - - 1 - 145 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Yukon Territory.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.
* No clinical cases.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2008

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs 5 - - - 2 2 3 - - - - - 12 5.11
Cats - - - - 1 - 2 - - - - - 3 1.27
Bovine - - - - 1 4 7 - - - - - 12 5.11
Equine - - - - 2 - 2 - - - - - 4 1.70
Caprine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ovine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Skunks - - - - 25 43 25 6 - - - - 99 42.13
Bats - - 14 1 2 1 38 5 - - - - 61 25.96
Foxes 12 - - - - - 2 1 - - - - 15 6.38
Raccoons - - - - - - - 27 - - - - 27 11.49
Wolves 1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - 2 0.85
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Badger - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Antelope - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 18 - 14 1 33 50 79 40 - - - - 235 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and the Yukon Territory.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.
* No clinical cases.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2007

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb.
A)
Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs 3 - - - 1 1 2 - - - - - 7 2.56
Cats - - 1 - 1 1 - - - - - - 3 1.10
Bovine - - - - 1 5 9 - - - - - 15 5.49
Equine - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - 2 0.73
Caprine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ovine - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.37
Skunks - - - - 12 30 30 6 - - - - 78 28.57
Bats - - 14 - - 1 62 15 1 - - - 93 34.07
Foxes 9 - - - - - - 2 - 2 - - 13 4.76
Raccoons - - - - 1 - - 58 - - - - 59 21.61
Wolves - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hamster - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1 0.37
Donkey - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.37
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 12 - 15 - 17 39 106 81 1 2 - - 273 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and the Yukon Territory.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.
* No clinical cases.

A) A 73-year-old man from central Alberta died in hospital in May after testing positive for rabies in March 2007 as a result of a bat bite in August 2006. The last human death from rabies in Canada occurred in a 52-year-old man in British Columbia in 2003.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2006

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S.. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs 6 - - - 1 4 - 2 - - - - 13 5.68
Cats - - - 1 1 2 2 - - - - - 6 2.62
Bovine - - - - 3 12 11 - - - - - 26 11.35
Equine - - - - 3 4 - - - - - - 7 3.06
Caprine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ovine - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.44
Skunks - - - - 21 39 23 1 - - - - 84 36.68
Bats - - 11 4 4 3 42 8 - - - - 72 31.44
Foxes 12 - - - - - 2 - - - - - 14 6.11
Raccoons - - - - - - 1 4 - - - - 5 2.18
Wolves - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hamster - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Antelope - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.44
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 18 - 11 5 33 65 82 15 - - - - 229 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and the Yukon Territory.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.
* No clinical cases.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2005

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S.. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs 4 - - - 1 3 1 3 - - - - 12 4.84
Cats - - - - 1 1 1 1 - - - - 4 1.61
Bovine - - - - - 5 11 - - - - - 16 6.45
Equine - - - - 2 - - - - - - - 2 0.81
Caprine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ovine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Skunks - - - - 18 59 17 - - - - - 94 37.90
Bats - - 18 1 1 - 61 12 1 - - - 94 37.90
Foxes 4 - - - - 3 3 4 - - - 4 18 7.26
Raccoons - - - - - 1 2 - - - - - 3 1.21
Wolves 2 - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - 4 1.61
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hamster - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bears - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1 0.41
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 10 - 18 1 24 73 96 21 1 - -  4 248 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and the Yukon Territory.
* The rabies positive cases identified in Newfoundland and Labrador originated in Labrador.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.
* No clinical cases.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2004

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs - - - - -  5 1 - - - - 1 7 2.68
Cats - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 - 2 0.77
Bovine - - - - - 2 20A) - - - - - 22A) 8.43
Equine - - - - 2 1 2 - 1 - - - 6 2.30
Caprine - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - 2 0.77
Ovine - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Porcine - - - - - 1B) - - - - - - 1B) 0.38
Skunks - -  4 - 19 68 25 - - - - - 116 44.44
Bats - - 13 3  3 - 56 7 - - - 1 83 31.80
Foxes 4 - - - - 1 3 3 - - - 3 14 5.36
Raccoons - - - - - - 5 - - - - - 5 1.92
Wolves - - - - - - - - - - 2 3 1.15
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hamster - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Antelopes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 4 -  17 3 25 78 114A) 11 1 - 1  7 261A) 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Nova Scotia, North West Territories and the Yukon Territory.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.

A) Includes 7 clinical bovine cases.
B) Pot-Belly Pig


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2003

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs - - - - 1 - - 3 - - - - 4 1.51
Cats - - - - - 3 - - - 1 - 1 5 1.89
Bovine - - - - - 4 6A) 1 - - - - 11A) 4.15
Equine - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - 2 0.75
Caprine - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.38
Porcine - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1 0.38
Ovine - - - - - 1 - - - - - 3 4 1.51
Skunks - - - - 18 36 22 - - - - - 76 28.68
Bats - - 17 4 4 2 74 13 1 - - - 115 43.39
Foxes - - - - - 2 6 5 - - - 15 28 10.56
Raccoons - - - - - - 16 - - - - - 16 6.04
Wolves - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.38
Coyotes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hamster - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Antelopes - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Woodchuck / Ground Hogs - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fisher - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bison - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lynx - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bears - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.38
Total - - 17 4 24 50 127A) 22 1 1 - 19 265A) 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from Prince Edward Island, North West Territories, NU. and the Yukon Territory.
* Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.

A) Includes 1 clinical bovine case.
B) A 52-year-old man from Port Coquitlam, British Columbia died of rabies. Test results showed that this was a bat variant of rabies virus. The last human death from rabies in Canada occurred in a 9-year-old boy in Quebec in 2000.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2002

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs 3 - - - - 1 4 - - - - - 8 2.29
Cats - - - - 1 2 6 - - - - - 9 2.58
Bovine - - - - 4 3 11A) - - - - - 18A) 5.16
Equine - - - - 1 2 1 - - - - - 4 1.15
Ovine - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.29
Porcine - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.29
Skunks - - - - 20 35 46 - - - - - 101 28.94
Bats - - 11 6 1 2 73 19 - - - - 112 32.09
Foxes 14 - - - - 3 41 3 - - - 4 65 18.62
Raccoons - - - - - - 22 1 3 - - - 26 7.45
Wolves - - - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 0.28
Coyotes - - - - - - 2 - - - - - 2 0.57
Grizzly bear 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 1 0.29
Total 18 0 11 6 27 48 208A) 24 3 0 0 4 349A) 100.00

A) Includes 6 clinical bovine cases.

* No cases of rabies reported from Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Yukon Territory.
**Two rabies positive cases identified in Newfoundland (Island) and two originated from Labrador.

Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2001

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs 5 - - - 2 2 4 2 - - - 1 16 3.60
Cats - - - 1 - 1 2 - - - - - 4 0.90
Bovine - - - - 2 9 15A) - - - - - 26A) 5.84
Equine - - - - 3 2 5 - - - - - 10 2.25
Ovine - - - - - - 2 - - - - - 2 0.45
Foxes 20 - - - - 1 26 9 - - - 7 63 14.16
Skunks - - - - 26 37 58 - 4 - - - 125 28.09
Bats - - 20 3 13 - 58 8 1 - - - 103 23.15
Raccoons - - - - - - 43 - 46 - - - 89 20.00
Wolves - - - - - - 2 - - - - 1 3 0.67
Coyotes - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.23
Fisher - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.22
Bison - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.22
Lynx 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 1 0.22
Total 26 0 20 4 46 53 217A) 19 51 0 0 9 445A) 100.00

A) Includes 4 clinical bovine cases.

* No cases of rabies reported from Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Yukon Territory.
** All rabied positive case identified in Newfoundland and Labrador originated from Labrador.

Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 2000

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs - - - - 5 7 8 3 - - - - 23 3.43
Cats - - - - 3 5 - - - - - - 8 1.19
Bovine - - - - 7 19 17A) - - - - - 43A) 6.42
Equine - - - - 1 4 3 - - - - - 8 1.19
Caprine - - - - 2 - - - - - - - 2 0.30
Skunks - - - - 142 199 58 - 5 - - - 404 60.30
Bats - - 12 3 11 1 34 7 2 2 - - 72 10.75
Foxes 15 - - - - - 32 11 - - - - 58 8.66
Raccoons - - - - - 1 40 - 6 - - - 47 7.01
Wolves 1 - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 3 0.45
Coyotes - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.15
Woodchuck/
Ground hogs
- - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.15
Total 16 0 12 3 171 237 194A) 21 13 2 0 1 670A) 100.00

A) Includes 7 clinical bovine cases.
B) A nine-year-old boy died of rabies in Quebec in October. Last human death from rabies in Canada occurred in B.C. in 1985.

* No cases reported from Prince Edward Island and Yukon Territory.
** The rabied positive case identified in Newfoundland and Labrador originated from Labrador.

Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 1999

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs - - - - 2 6 1 2 - - - - 11 2.20
Cats - - - - 2 2 - - - - - - 4 0.80
Bovine - - - - 8 19 12 - - - - - 39 7.80
Equine - - - - 2 3 - - - - - - 5 1.00
Ovine - - - - - - 2 - - - - - 2 0.40
Foxes 5 - - - - 2 12 5 - - - - 24 4.80
Skunks - - - - 118 190 46 1 - - - - 355 71.00
Bats - - 14 3 4 2 18 1 - - - - 42 8.40
Raccoons - - - - 1 3 9 - - - - - 13 2.60
Wolves 1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - 2 0.40
Woodchuck/
Ground hogs
- - - - - 2 - - - - - - 2 0.40
Bison - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.20
Total 6 0 14 3 137 230 100 10 0 0 0 0 500 100.00

* No cases of rabies reported from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and Yukon Territory.

Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.


Positive Rabies in Canada
(Lab Submissions and Clinicals)

January 1 to December 31, 1998

Species N. W. T. / NU. Yukon B.C. Alb. Sask. Man. Ont. QC. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Total % Total
Dogs 1 - - 1 1 6 2 - - - - - 11 2.96
Cats - - - - 2 5 1 - - - - - 8 2.15
Bovine - - - - 1 17 10A) 1 - - - - 29A) 7.79
Equine - - - - 2 1 - - - - - - 3 0.81
Foxes 9 - - 1 - 2 4 12 - - - - 28 7.53
Skunks - - - - 61 138 33 1 - - - - 233 62.63
Bats - - 12 4 8 1 30 1 - - - - 56 15.05
Raccoons - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 0.27
Hamster - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.27
Antelope - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1 0.27
Fisher - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 0.27
Total 10 0 12 6 76 172 81A) 15 0 0 0 0 372A) 100.00

A) Includes 2 clinical bovine cases.

* No cases of rabies reported from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and Yukon Territory.

Diagnostic work was done by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Ontario Laboratory - Fallowfield, Ottawa and Animal Disease Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta.