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D-08-04: Plant Protection Import Requirements for Plants and Plant Parts for Planting: Preventing the Entry and Spread of Regulated Plant Pests Associated with the Plants for Planting Pathway

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EFFECTIVE DATE: March 14th, 2011
(1st Revision)

CANADIAN FOOD INSPECTION AGENCY
59 Camelot Drive
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0Y9
(Tel.: 613-225-2342; Fax: 613-773-7204)

Subject

This directive contains the general import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting from all countries to prevent the entry and spread of regulated plant pests. Additional requirements specific to certain plant taxa and certain pest species may apply. These requirements may be found in various pest-specific, or plant-specific policy directives.

This policy directive was developed to consolidate, clarify and summarize Canada's general plant health import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting. Previously, these requirements were found in a number of directives and other documents and it was difficult for importers, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) staff and other stakeholders to obtain an overview of the requirements. This directive also provides clarification on the interpretation of country of origin within the context of preventing the entry and spread of regulated plant pests and includes a list of plants categorized as "Not authorized pending pest risk analysis (NAPPRA)".

This directive is revised as a result of changes to Appendix 2: List of NAPPRA plant material. Aconogonon spp., Bistorta spp., Fallopia spp., Persicaria and Aesculus spp. were removed from the NAPPRA list. In the past, Aconogonon spp., Bistorta spp., Fallopia spp. and Persicaria spp. were added to the NAPPRA list as synonyms of Polygonum spp. However, new taxonomic information has classified these taxon as distinct genera. In addition, the Pest Risk Analysis has been completed for Aesculus spp. and the importation of Aesculus spp. plants for planting are now prohibited from outside the Continental U.S.


Table of Contents


Review

This directive will be reviewed every 5 years unless otherwise needed. For further information or clarification, please contact the CFIA.

Endorsement

Approved by:


Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments to this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (determined by Author)
  3. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. Internet

Introduction

The importation of plants and plant parts from all countries of origin present a potential threat to Canada's plant resources, environment, and economy. Trade in plants for planting is a common pathway by which numerous plant pests could be introduced and spread within Canada. Other primary pathways for the introduction of plant pests include: soil and related matter, soil-free growing media that is associated with plants for planting and packing materials.

In the past, many plants for planting were imported from off-continent sources without undergoing a formal Pest Risk Analysis (PRA). Historically, this plant material was imported in relatively low volumes, and from a very limited number of known, traditional sources in Europe. However, in recent decades, Canada and other countries have developed a large number of new trading partners and the volume of plant imports from both new and traditional sources has been increasing. The pest risk associated with these new pathways should be evaluated before permits to import are issued.

Note: The CFIA is currently developing a policy to regulate plants that could be considered as pests because of their invasive nature.

Scope

This directive provides an overview of the main plant protection requirements that Canadian importers and foreign exporters must comply with prior to importing plant material to Canada. This policy focuses on plants for planting as a potential pathway for regulated plant pests and does not cover the regulation of plant taxa as invasive alien species. Other directives for specific commodities, pests and origins may be applicable. This directive is to be used as a general guide for Canadian importers, foreign exporters, shippers and brokers, CFIA inspectors, Canada Border Services Agency and National Plant Protection Organizations.

References

CFIA, 2008 - Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

ISPM No. 2 - Framework for Pest Risk Analysis. 2007, Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 4 - Requirements for the Establishment of Pest Free Areas. 1995 Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 5 - Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. Rome, (updated annually) FAO.

ISPM No. 6 - Guidelines for Surveillance. 1997, Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 10 - Requirements for the Establishment of Pest Free Places of Production and Pest Free Productions Sites. 1999, Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 11 - Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests Including Analysis of Environmental Risks and Living Modified Organisms. 2004, Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 14 - The Use of Integrated Measures in a Systems Approach for Pest Risk Management. 2002, Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 19 - Guidelines on Lists of Regulated Pests. 2003, Rome 2003FAO.

RSPM No. 5 - NAPPO Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. 2010, NAPPO.

RSPM No. 24 - Integrated Pest Risk Management Measures for the Importation of Plants for Planting into NAPPO Member Countries. 2005, NAPPO.

D-94-14: Permit to Import Requirements for Plant Material from the Continental United States.

D-95-26: Phytosanitary Requirements for Soil and Related Matter, Alone or in Association with Plants.

D-96-20: Canadian Growing Media Program, Prior Approval Process and Import Requirements for Plants Rooted in Approved Media.

D-97-04: Application, Procedures, Issuance and Use of a Permit to Import Under the Plant Protection Act.

D-01-02: Import Requirements for Packages of Flower Bulbs Purchased in The Netherlands by Travelers Returning to or Visiting Canada.

D-02-12: Import Requirements of Non-Manufactured Wood and Other Non-Propagative Wood Products, Except Solid Wood Packaging Material, From All Areas Other Than the Continental United States.

Prohibited Plants and Plant Material from Countries Other than the Continental United States

This document supercedes Directive D-08-04 (Original).

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice web site.

2.0 Specific Requirements

2.1 Regulated Pests

A list of Pests Regulated by Canada can be found through the CFIA's web site.

2.2 Regulated Commodities

  • plants and plant parts for planting (including, but not limited to, nursery stock, greenhouse plants, houseplants, potted plants, orchid plants, artificially dwarfed plants (bonsai, penjing), rooted plants, in vitro/tissue culture plants, liners, cuttings, slips, seedlings, turf (sod), living mosses, epiphytes, aerial plantlets, bulbs, corms, rhizomes, tubers, tuberous roots, herbaceous perennial roots, etc.);
  • certain fresh decorative branches of species as listed in section 3.4;
  • pollen intended for propagation;

    Note: pollen used for insect feeding is regulated by Animal Health, please refer to Animal Health's Bee Products web site.

  • packing material associated with plants for planting.

Other commodity or pest-specific requirements may apply and are provided in separate policy directives. For example, Chaenomeles (flowering quince), Cydonia (quince), Malus (apple and crabapple), Prunus (stone fruits), Pyrus (pear), and Vitis (grapevine) must originate from sources approved under the CFIA's virus certification programs for fruit trees and grapevines and are subject to additional pathogen certification requirements. For further information, please contact, your local CFIA office, or visit the CFIA web site at www.inspection.gc.ca.

2.3 Commodities not Regulated by this Directive

NOTE: Requirements for these materials may exist in other policy directives. Please consult AIRS for further information.

  • cut flowers;
  • fresh decorative branches of species other than those identified specifically in section 3.4 of this directive;
  • cut Christmas trees;
  • dried plant material;
  • flower bulbs intended for personal use that are purchased in The Netherlands by travelers returning to or visiting Canada, as per directive D-01-02;
  • bulbs and other below ground plant parts intended for consumption;
  • fresh fruit, root crops, and vegetables for consumption;
  • seeds for propagation (tree, shrub, flower, herb, vegetable, cereal and grain);
  • nuts and seeds for consumption;
  • sprouted seeds for consumption;
  • potatoes (for propagation and consumption);
  • pollen for purposes other than propagation (e.g. for human consumption, insect feeding, etc.);
  • raw wood and raw wood products (wood, logs, roots, wooden stakes, bark, bark chips, wood chips, mulch, hog fuel, etc.);
  • bamboo stakes; and
  • growing media.

2.4 Regulated Areas

All origins outside of Canada.

3.0 Import Requirements

3.1 General Requirements for Plants for Planting

Consignments of plants for planting must be free of regulated pests. If other pests of potential quarantine concern are found in a consignment, this consignment may be detained while the CFIA evaluates the risk posed.

Plants for planting may also be subject to additional requirements depending on the species and country or region of origin. These additional requirements will be specified on the Permit to Import (if required) and in the associated pest or commodity-specific policy directive(s). The importer must ensure that the consignment meets all Canadian Import requirements.

Note: Houseplants imported from the Continental United States and Hawaii, may be exempted from regular documentation requirements because the risks of introducing quarantine pests into Canada from these commodities is considered low. Houseplants are usually tropical or semi-tropical ornamental plants that are grown or intended to be grown indoors. A list of examples of eligible and non-eligible plants is included in Appendix 7. In order to qualify for the exemption, the houseplants must be for personal use and must accompany the importer at the time of entry into Canada, in baggage or as part of household effects. The total number of plants must not exceed 50 houseplants. Please note that any specific species requirement or prohibition take precedence over the houseplant import requirements outlined in this directive.

Eligible houseplants originating from the Continental United States, do not require an import permit nor a phytosanitary certificate. Houseplants originating from Hawaii do not require an import permit, however, the plants must be completely free from all soil, related matter and growing media, and must be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate issued by the USDA, or its designate. Please note that the houseplant exemption does not apply to plants originating from areas that are regulated for Phytophthora ramorum. Please see D-01-01 for more information.

A Permit to Import is required for all plants entering Canada from off-continent and for some plants entering Canada from the United States (U.S.). The Canadian importer must apply for the permit to import well in advance of the shipping date to ensure it is received prior to shipping. The Permit to Import will specify how the thing must be packaged, transported, handled, controlled and used to ensure the pest or biological obstacle to the control of a pest is not introduced into or spread within Canada. Please refer to the CFIA policy directive D-97-04 for more information about the application, procedures, issuance and use of a Permit to Import under the Plant Protection Act.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required for all plants for planting entering Canada. The Phytosanitary Certificate is issued by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) in the exporting country and must list each of the plants in the consignment. The plants must be identified using accepted scientific names to, at least, the genus level. Certain plants for planting must be identified to species or even to cultivar (e.g. Berberis, plants regulated by the Convention on International Trade or Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), etc.). The list of plants on the Phytosanitary Certificate should match the packing list for the imported material.

When treatment is required, details must appear in the "Treatment" section of the Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the exporting country's NPPO.

Appropriate additional declarations must be included on phytosanitary certificates accompanying plant material originating from areas where regulated pests are present. A list of soil pests that may be associated with plant material from the United States can be found in Appendix 5. A list of the conditions for importation from the continental United States of plant material (other than potatoes) in association with soil and related matter can be found in Appendix 6. Plants can also carry pests in their aerial parts and must therefore be certified accordingly with appropriate additional declarations.

A copy of the Phytosanitary Certificate should accompany the shipment to destination. If presenting paperwork to an Import Service Centre (ISC) for clearance, a fax of the top signed copy of the Phytosanitary Certificate must be sent along with the other paperwork.

Official attachments to the Phytosanitary Certificate should be limited to those instances where the information required to complete the certificate exceeds the available space on the certificate. Any attachments containing phytosanitary information must bear the Phytosanitary Certificate number, and must be dated, signed and stamped by the issuing NPPO. The Phytosanitary Certificate should indicate, in the appropriate section, that the information belonging in that section is contained in the attachment and it should reference the attachment by a serial number or other unique identifier.

The CFIA reviews each application for a Permit to Import that is submitted to the permit office. As part of this review process each plant taxon on the permit application is categorized as being either Prohibited, Authorized or Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis (NAPPRA). A list of plant material that has been classified as NAPPRA can be found in Appendix 2. If a plant is on the NAPPRA list or is added to the NAPPRA list, then a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) must be conducted to determine if the plant will be authorized for import, or not. Please be aware that a PRA is not automatically required in order for a plant to be imported from a new source.

The NAPPRA category is also used to allow the CFIA to take action in a timely manner when a plant is believed to be a pathway for the dissemination of a pest of quarantine concern to Canada. The CFIA may change the categorization of a plant taxa from authorized to either the prohibited or NAPPRA, at its discretion. In these situations, the CFIA may amend existing permits to import in order to prevent further importations of one or more plants until a PRA can be completed. If a plant is classified as NAPPRA, the CFIA will notify the applicant/importer and provide information outlining the procedures for requesting a PRA, should the importer wish to do so.

The PRA is used to identify the pest risk associated with the pathway, evaluate potential mitigation measures, and determine whether imports can be authorized. Ultimately, the PRA helps the CFIA to determine whether a particular plant taxon should be prohibited entry to Canada from particular countries, or whether acceptable phytosanitary measures are available to mitigate the pest risk to an acceptable level.

The PRA process includes: assembling a list of organisms likely to be associated with the pathway, identifying whether any of these organisms are a regulatory concern, and evaluating the potential economic and environmental impact. The biology of the pest organisms, including life cycles, geographical distributions, host ranges, habitats and associations with plants for planting are all used to develop the PRA. Information about the commodity, including production practices, pest management strategies, modes of transport, and its intended end use are also essential elements.

If a Permit to Import is issued, it will include a description of any specific phytosanitary measures and any additional declarations that are required. The importer must ensure that the consignment is in compliance with all requirements.

Phytosanitary risk mitigation measures at origin may include one, or more, of the following:

  • prohibition;
  • visual inspection;
  • pest-specific sampling and testing;
  • treatment at origin;
  • pest free area, based on official survey (ISPM No. 4, ISPM No. 6);
  • pest free place of production (ISPM No. 10);
  • plants for planting produced under a systems approach at an approved facility in the exporting country (ISPM No. 14, RSPM No. 24);
  • plants for planting produced under a clean stock program in the exporting country (ISPM No. 14, RSPM No. 24);
  • post-entry quarantine in Canada;
  • importation limited to in vitro plants;
  • importation limited to seed;
  • pre-clearance by CFIA in the country of origin (e.g. Dutch Bulbs Pre-Clearance Program).

Prohibited Plants and Plant Material from Countries Other than the Continental United States, are listed on the CFIA web site.

3.2 Other Requirements

The CFIA is currently developing a policy to regulate plants that could be considered as pests because of their invasive nature and the risk they pose to Canadian ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry.

Additional requirements may also apply to plants with novel traits, including, but not limited to, plants produced by recombinant DNA technology, mutagenesis or wide cross. Please refer to D-96-13 for further information.

Environment Canada has additional requirements that may impact importations of plants for planting, particularly plant taxa that are considered endangered or threatened, as outlined by the CITES. Please refer to Appendix 1 to find out how to obtain additional information.

3.3 Country of Origin

The pest risk associated with any particular plant taxa is closely tied to the country of origin of the plant and the pests of concern present in that country. Each country in which a plant is grown adds an additional layer of risk to the final product. There is currently no international mechanism for tracking all the countries where a plant is grown, allowing for evaluation of these accumulated risks.

In addition, a number of plant pests are cryptic in nature, or do not immediately induce symptom development on the host plants they infest, making their detection difficult at the time of the certification by the exporting country's NPPO. By prescribing a defined period of active growth for plants for planting material, it is expected that a greater number of pests will be identified at origin prior to shipping, therefore reducing the risk of pest introduction into Canada.

CFIA considers plants for planting entering Canada to originate from the exporting country, if the material:

  1. was propagated and grown only in the exporting country;
    • OR
  2. was imported to the exporting country from a third country and actively grown in the exporting country for at least:
  • 4 weeks (28 days) for plants that are propagated and grown exclusively in greenhouses;
    • OR
  • 16 weeks (112 days) for plants that are grown outdoors at any time during production.

Plant material is considered as actively growing when dormancy is broken.

For plants that have not been grown in the country of export for the period of time prescribed above the exporting NPPO must declare all countries where they have been grown as the countries of origin. Plants for planting that are prohibited or restricted entry to Canada from a particular country cannot be imported to Canada from a third country regardless of how long they are grown in that third country. Plant material that is imported into the U.S. (or moved into the continental U.S. from Hawaii) in association with growing media may never be exported to Canada, no matter how long it is grown in the U.S. unless it meets the requirements of the Canadian Growing Media Program (CGMP, D-96-20) at the time of entry to the U.S.

NOTE: The country of origin must be indicated on the Phytosanitary Certificate that accompanies plant material entering Canada. The country of origin of a plant for phytosanitary purposes may be different from its country of origin for the purposes of customs, duty, CITES, etc.

NOTE: For shipments entering Canada from the U.S. the state of origin must be clearly indicated on the Phytosanitary Certificate. More detailed identification of origin, to the county level, may be required by specific CFIA policy directives.

3.4 Specific Requirements for Plants for Planting

NOTE: Please refer to Appendix 2 for a list of NAPPRA plant material.

Note: Houseplants imported from the Continental United States and Hawaii, may be exempted from regular documentation requirements because the risks of introducing quarantine pests into Canada from these commodities is considered low. Houseplants are usually tropical or semi-tropical ornamental plants that are grown or intended to be grown indoors. A list of examples of eligible and non-eligible plants is included in Appendix 7. In order to qualify for the exemption, the houseplants must be for personal use and must accompany the importer at the time of entry into Canada, in baggage or as part of household effects. The total number of plants must not exceed 50 houseplants. Please note that any specific species requirement or prohibition take precedence over the houseplant import requirements outlined in this directive.

Eligible houseplants originating from the Continental United States, do not require an import permit nor a phytosanitary certificate. Houseplants originating from Hawaii do not require an import permit, however, the plants must be completely free from all soil, related matter and growing media, and must be accompanied by a phytosanitary certificate issued by the USDA, or its designate. Please note that the houseplant exemption does not apply to plants originating from areas that are regulated for Phytophthora ramorum. Please see D-01-01 for more information.

Commodity Originating from the Continental U.S. Originating from outside the Continental U.S.
3.4.1 Rooted Plants Without Soil, Related Matter Or Growing Media (plants that are free of soil; including bulbs, tubers and other below ground plant parts)
  • The exporting NPPO must ensure the plants for planting and associated packaging are free of all growing media, soil and related matter.
  • A Permit to Import is not required unless specified in policy directive D-94-14. In this case, the importer must obtain the Permit to Import, if required, prior to importation.
  • The consignment must be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the NPPO (or its delegate). Additional declarations attesting to freedom from regulated pests, including soil pests, may be required depending on the commodity and state of origin;

OR

  • Greenhouse plants imported under the United States Greenhouse Certification Program may have a United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) Export Certification Label, in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate (see Appendix 4)
  • A Permit to Import obtained prior to importation is required.
  • The exporting NPPO must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment, attesting to freedom from soil pests including: potato wart disease (Synchytrium endobioticum), the potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) and the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).
  • Additional declarations attesting to freedom from other regulated pests may be required depending on the commodity and country/region of origin.
  • Aesculus spp.
    The importation of Aesculus spp. into Canada is prohibited.
3.4.2 Rooted Plants With Soil Or Related Matter Or With Soil-Free Growing Media and not imported under the Canadian Growing Media Program (includes bulbs, tubers and other below ground plant parts).
  • A Permit to Import is not required unless specified in policy directive D-94-14. The importer must obtain the Permit to Import, if required, prior to importation.
  • The USDA (or its delegate) must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment. Additional declarations attesting to freedom from regulated pests, including soil pests, may be required depending on the commodity and state of origin.

OR

  • Greenhouse plants imported under the United States Greenhouse Certification Program may be accompanied by a USDA-APHIS Export Certification Label, in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate (see Appendix 4)

The additional declarations for regulated soil pests can be found in Appendix 5.

  • Prohibited.
3.4.3 Rooted Plants With Soil-Free Growing Media Imported Under the Canadian Growing Media Program (includes bulbs, tubers and other below ground plant parts)
  • The Canadian Growing Media Program (CGMP, D-96-20) allows for the entry of greenhouse-grown plants rooted in approved soil-free growing media. The program requires prior approval for the production facility and all growing media, before importation is authorized. Exporting plant production facilities must maintain conditions whereby the exported plants and approved media are free of plant pests and soil, and relatively free of other soil-inhabiting organisms.
  • All material imported under the Canadian Growing Media Program (CGMP) must meet the conditions outlined in policy directive D-96-20.
  • The importer must obtain a Permit to Import for all plants imported under the CGMP prior to importation.
  • The USDA (or its delegate) must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment. The Phytosanitary Certificate must bear the appropriate Additional Declaration for the CGMP, in addition to any others that may be necessary, depending on the commodity and state of origin. Additional Declarations attesting to freedom from specific soil pests are not required.
  • All material imported under the Canadian Growing Media Program (CGMP) must meet the conditions outlined in policy directive D-96-20.
  • The importer must obtain a Permit to Import for all plants imported under the CGMP prior to importation.
  • The exporting NPPO must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment. The Phytosanitary Certificate must bear the appropriate Additional Declaration for the CGMP, in addition to any others that may be necessary, depending on the commodity and country/region of origin. Additional Declarations attesting to freedom from specific soil pests are not required.
3.4.4 Epiphytes, aerial plantlets, and un rooted cuttings
  • Epiphytes, aerial plantlets, un rooted leaf, stems cuttings and other plants and plant parts, which have NOT been produced in association with growing media, soil or related matter are exempt from additional declarations for soil pests.
  • Examples of epiphytes include: Dendrobium, Polypodium, Tillandsia and many of the Bromeliads.

To be considered un rooted, plants and plant parts must not exhibit any roots or root initials at the time of export.

  • A Permit to Import is not required unless specified in policy directive D-94-14. In this case, the importer must obtain the Permit to Import, if required, prior to importation.
  • The USDA (or its delegate) must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment.
  • Additional Declarations attesting to freedom from specific soil pests are not required provided the plants or plant parts have never been grown in association with growing media, soil or related matter. Additional Declarations attesting to freedom from other regulated plant pests may be required depending on the commodity and state of origin.

OR

  • Greenhouse plants and nursery stock imported under the Greenhouse Certification Program may have a USDA-APHIS Export Certification Label, in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate. (see Appendix 4).
  • The importer must obtain a Permit to Import prior to importation.
  • The exporting NPPO must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment.
  • The plants and plant parts must be free of growing media, soil and related matter.
  • Additional Declarations attesting to freedom from specific soil pests are not required provided the plants or plant parts have never been grown in association with growing media, soil or related matter. Additional Declarations attesting to freedom from other regulated plant pests may be required depending on the commodity and state of origin.
  • Aesculus spp.
    The importation of Aesculus spp. into Canada is prohibited.
3.4.5 Fresh Decorative Branches
  • Salix (willow), Chaenomeles (hawthorn), Cydonia (quince), Malus (apple and crabapple), Prunus (stone fruits), Pyrus (pear), Vitis (grapevine), Rutaceae (citrus), Dracaena, and Dieffenbachia and Rhamnus (= Frangula).
  • Fresh decorative branches must be free of soil and related matter.
Salix (willow)
  • A permit to import is not required. A Phytosanitary Certificate is not required unless the product originates from an area regulated for Phytophthora ramorum (see directive D-01-01 for details).

Chaenomeles (hawthorn), Cydonia (quince), Malus (apple and crabapple), Prunus (stone fruits), Pyrus (pear), Vitis (grapevine)

  • A Permit to Import is required. The importer must obtain the Permit to Import prior to importation.
  • The USDA (or its delegate) must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment.
  • Additional declarations attesting to freedom from regulated plant pests, or that the product was produced under the U.S. Fruit Tree Certification Program, are required.

Rutaceae (citrus), Dracaena, and Dieffenbachia

  • A permit to import is not required. A Phytosanitary Certificate is not required.

Rhamnus (= Frangula)

  • The importation of Rhamnus into Canada is prohibited.
Salix (willow), Chaenomeles (hawthorn), Cydonia (quince), Malus (apple and crabapple), Prunus (stone fruits), Pyrus (pear) and Vitis (grapevine) decorative branches are prohibited.

Rutaceae (citrus), Dracaena spp., and Dieffenbachia spp.

  • The importer must obtain a Permit to Import prior to importation.
  • The exporting NPPO must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment.
  • Additional declarations attesting to freedom from regulated plant pests may be required depending on the commodity and country/region of origin.

Rhamnus (= Frangula)

  • The importation of Rhamnus into Canada is prohibited.
3.4.6 Plants in vitro
  • Plantlets must originate from mother plants which are free of any plant pathogens regulated by Canada.
  • Plantlets must be propagated in vitro in a sterile medium under sterile conditions that preclude the possibility of infestation with any pests of quarantine concern to Canada.
  • Plantlets must be produced and shipped in sealed, aseptic, transparent containers.
  • In vitro plants are exempt from additional declarations for soil pests.
  • A Permit to Import is not required unless specified in policy directive D-94-14. In this case, the importer must obtain the Permit to Import, if required, prior to importation.
  • The USDA (or its delegate) must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment. Additional declarations attesting to freedom from regulated plant pests may be required depending on the commodity and state of origin.

OR

  • Greenhouse plants and nursery stock imported under the Greenhouse Certification Program may have a USDA-APHIS Export Certification Label, in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate. (see Appendix 4).
  • The importer must obtain the Permit to Import prior to importation.
  • The exporting NPPO must issue a Phytosanitary Certificate, which must accompany the consignment. Additional declarations attesting to freedom from regulated plant pests may be required depending on the commodity and country/region of origin.
3.4.7 Pollen for propagation
  • The importation of pollen of Prunus spp. into Canada is prohibited.
  • Pollen of Chaenomeles spp., Cydonia spp., Malus spp., Pinus spp. and Pyrus spp.: The consignment must be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the USDA (or its delegate). The species from which the pollen is coming from must be clearly indicated.
  • The importation of pollen from genera other than those specified above is permitted. A Phytosanitary Certificate and a Permit to Import are not required.
  • The importation of pollen of Prunus spp., Chaenomeles spp., Cydonia spp., Malus spp., Pinus spp. and Pyrus spp. into Canada is prohibited.
  • The importation of pollen from genera other than those specified above is permitted. A Phytosanitary Certificate and a Permit to Import are not required.

3.5 Packing Material (for consignments entering Canada from a country other than the continental U.S.)

Plants for planting frequently enter Canada in association with packing material that is intended to protect plants during shipping and maintain moisture level. Plants must not be rooted in the packing material. Approved packing materials include the following:

  • Coco peat (coconut husk pith or fibres)
  • Cork (ground cork)
  • Wood shaving, wood wool, saw dust, excelsior (or other very fine wood shavings)
  • Paper
  • Peat
  • Perlite
  • Polyacrylamide (water absorbing polymers)
  • Rice chaff
  • Vermiculite

Other products or materials may be approved by the CFIA on a case-by-case basis. All of the above materials must be free of pests, soil and related matter. These materials must be new and will not be accepted if they have been previously used for growing, rooting or packing plants or plant materials. Packing cases for shipping any regulated plant commodity must be new and free of soil and related matter.

Peat is the non-viable, incompletely decomposed organic residues of plants, often mosses, accumulated under anaerobic, acidic conditions.

Sphagnum moss and other mosses can only be used as a packing material if they are non-viable and are free of plant debris, soil and related matter; or treated according to the requirements in Appendix 3. Sphagnum moss and other mosses used as packing material may be subjected to an inspection by the CFIA at the time of entry in Canada.

3.6 Plants in Association with Forest Products

Untreated bark, bark chips, wood chips, hog fuel, logs, roots, wood, wood stakes, bamboo stakes and any other raw wood is generally prohibited entry into Canada from all countries other than the continental U.S. and additional restrictions and declarations may be required from those regions of the continental U.S. that are regulated for specific pests. For further information, please refer to policy directive D-02-12.

4.0 Inspection Requirements

Plants for planting are subject to inspection and audit sampling on arrival in Canada to ensure compliance with CFIA requirements, and to verify the absence of soil and regulated plant pests and the practical freedom from other plant pests.

The ISC may issue a Notice to Importer (NTI) which can be used to inform the local CFIA inspection office that a shipment of plants for planting has arrived in their region and is available for inspection at destination. The importer is required to contact the local inspection office and arrange for shipment inspection. The local inspection office will determine whether any particular shipment will require inspection prior to release, or whether it can be released without inspection. The shipment may not be opened, or moved into the production area until it has been released by a CFIA inspector.

Some packaging and plant preparation practices may enable more efficient inspection, sampling and verification activities associated with imported plants and plant products, which in turn could help to minimize delays at port-of-entry, damage, and subsequent loss to the importer. Examples may include:

  • Rooted plants without soil, woody stem plants are wrapped or packaged in an approved moisture-retaining packaging that can be readily removed by CFIA staff for inspection.
  • Plant material (bulbs, tubers, etc.) are packaged in transparent plastic bags, membranes or boxes with plastic window openings of a kind that can be readily opened by CFIA staff so as to minimize damage.
  • The wax used to prevent drying of plant tissues is transparent.

Water retaining coating applied on roots must not be so thick that it would impede inspection. Packing material must be readily distinguishable from growing media.

For further information, please contact your local CFIA Office or visit the CFIA web site at: www.inspection.gc.ca.

5.0 Non-Compliance

Shipments that do not meet the import requirements of this directive may be refused entry, removed from Canada, or destroyed. The importer is responsible for any and all costs relating to treatment, disposal, removal or re-routing, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken. Notification of non-compliance to the exporting country may be issued by the CFIA, as per D-01-06, Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for the Notification of Non-Compliance and Emergency Action.

6.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Information on Environment Canada requirements

Appendix 2: List of NAPPRA plant material

Appendix 3: Approved Treatments for Sphagnum Moss

Appendix 4: United States Greenhouse Certification Program (USGCP)

Appendix 5: Presence of regulated soil-borne quarantine pests in the continental United States

Appendix 6: Conditions for importation from the continental United States of plant material (other than potatoes) in association with soil and related matter

Appendix 7: Houseplant for personal use: examples of eligible and non-eligible plants


Appendix 1

Information on Environment Canada Requirements

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

Import and export of certain plant species must comply with requirements under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). CITES sets controls on the international trade and movement of animal and plant species that have been, or may be, threatened due to excessive commercial exploitation. Environment Canada is the lead agency responsible for implementing CITES on behalf of the Canadian federal government. Please visit the CITES web site for further information.


Appendix 2

List of NAPPRA Plant Material


Appendix 3

Approved Treatments for Sphagnum Moss

1. Dry Heat

Sample Temperature
°CF)
Exposure Period* Minutes (Hours)
Large: more than 2.5 kg (5 lbs) 110-120 (230-249 )
121-154 (250-309)
155-192 (310-379)
193-220 (380-429)
221-232 (430-450)
960 (16 hrs)
120 (2 hrs)
30 minutes
4 minutes
2 minutes
Small: less than 2.5 kg (5 lbs) 120 (250) 30 minutes

2. Steam Heat

Pressure kPa (psi) Temperature
°CF)
Exposure Period* Minutes
104 (15) 117 (245) 30 minutes

* The exposure period may not begin until the appropriate pressure and temperature have been reached.

3. Methyl Bromide Fumigation

Important Notice: As a signatory to the Protocol to the Vienna Convention on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol, 1987), Canada has entered the phase-out period for the use of Methyl Bromide for quarantine purposes. Exporting countries are encouraged to submit alternatives to Methyl Bromide fumigation for review.

(i) At normal atmospheric pressure

Sample Dosage g/m3 (oz/1000ft3) Temperature
°CF)
Exposure Period Hours
Large compact samples 368 (368) 16 (60) 16
Large loose samples 240 (240) 16 (60) 24
Small samples 160 (160) 16 (60) 3

(ii) Vacuum Fumigation in 66 cm (26 in.) Vacuum *

Dosage g/m3 (oz/1000ft3) Temperature
°CF)
Exposure Period Hours
128 (128)
165 (165)
192 (192)
4 (40)
4 (40)
4 (40)
16128

*The moss must be friable, moist, but not wet, and containers should be open. The amount of moss treated at one time must not exceed 30 cm in its smallest dimension.


Appendix 4

United States Greenhouse Certification Program (USGCP)

The United States Greenhouse Certification Program (US-GCP) is a USDA administered program aimed at American greenhouse growers that export plants of U.S. propagative origin to Canada. The US-GCP allows approved production facilities in the U.S. to certify eligible plant material for export to the Canada with an Export Certification Label (ECL), in lieu of a USDA Phytosanitary Certificate.

Each shipment of plants for planting exported to Canada from the U.S. must be accompanied by either a traditional USDA Phytosanitary Certificate or an ECL. The ECL is used to verify that the plant material in the consignment has been produced in conformance with the US-GCP and meets the import requirements of Canada.

All plant material certified under the US-GCP must meet the following phytosanitary criteria:

  • freedom from all regulated pests to Canada and/or the U.S.;
  • practical freedom from non-regulated plant pests;
  • compliance with any pest-specific or commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements of the CFIA and/or USDA;
  • compliance with Canadian origin requirements; and
  • compliance with specific provincial requirements.

Eligible plants are those commonly known and recognized as indoor foliage and flowering plants and those categorized as bedding plants intended for either indoor or outdoor planting. The majority of eligible plants fall into the following categories: bedding plants, cacti, flowering plants, foliage plants, orchids, potted bulb plants and succulents. Certain plants have been specifically excluded from the US-GCP by the CFIA (see below).

Plants Excluded from the United States Greenhouse Certification Program (US-GCP) for Export to Canada list.

The approved US-GCP facility must maintain care and control over its ECL and is responsible for applying an ECL to the shipping documents accompanying the consignment. The documentation accompanying US-GCP shipments must list the quantity and scientific name of each plant in the consignment. Unless there are specific species requirements, scientific names to the genus level will suffice. The documents describing the consignment must be clearly linked to the ECL by reference to the ECL serial number, and the document bearing the ECL must reference the shipping documents which describe the contents of the consignment.

The U.S. production facility must be approved and in good standing under the US-GCP at the time of shipping. All plants listed on the shipping documents must be covered by the ECLs accompanying a consignment. The ECL must conform to the example provided below, and each consignment must have a separate ECL. If the documentation accompanying the shipment does not meet Canadian requirements then the shipment will be refused entry.

Authentication

The ECL must conform to the example provided at the end of this appendix.

The ECL is a white sticker approximately 9.5 cm x 4.5 cm in size.

Each ECL is pre-printed with a facility identification number. The first two letters of the identification number represents the state where the approved facility is located.

Each ECL is also pre-printed with a unique serial number.

Each label must also be pre-printed with the following: "This shipment of greenhouse grown plants meets the import requirements of Canada and is believed to be free from injurious plant pests"; United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; and the USDA seal.

This is an example of an Export Certification Label. In this example the nursery's identification number is prefaced by the two-letter State abbreviation; FL standing for Florida. Example is enlarged for viewing purposes.

Canada does not accept hand written labels, serial numbers, or identification numbers.

Note: In this example the nursery's identification number is prefaced by the two-letter State abbreviation; "FL" standing for Florida. Example is enlarged for viewing purposes.

 


Appendix 5

Presence of regulated soil-borne quarantine pests in the continental United States

Note: appropriate additional declarations must be indicated on phytosanitary certificates accompanying plant material originating from areas where the pests are present.


Appendix 6

Conditions for importation from the continental United States of plant material (other than potatoes) in association with soil and related matter

Phytosanitary Certificates may only be issued if the requirements for the additional declaration(s) have been met.

1. Apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)

Refer to the requirements for rooted plants described in D-00-07: Import and domestic phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction and spread of apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella spp. (Walsh)).

2. Blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)

Refer to the requirements for rooted plants described in D-02-04: Phytosanitary Requirements for the Importation From the Continental United States and for Domestic Movement of Commodities Regulated for Blueberry Maggot.

3. Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)

Refer to the requirements for rooted plants described in D-96-15: Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Spread of Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Canada and the United States.

4. Golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis)

Soil from quarantine areas of infested states is prohibited. Contact the U.S. Department of Agriculture for more information regarding quarantine areas.

For material with soil from infested states, the following additional declaration must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"The plant material in this shipment was grown in a county or area of a county that has been sampled and found to be free of the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) based on negative results of an official survey."

5. Pale cyst nematode (Globodera pallida)

Soil from quarantine areas of infested states is prohibited. Contact the U.S. Department of Agriculture for more information regarding quarantine areas.

For material with soil from infested states, the following additional declaration must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"The plant material in this shipment was grown in a county or area of a county that has been sampled and found to be free of the pale cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) based on negative results of an official survey."

6. Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

Soil is prohibited from areas where soybean cyst nematode is known to occur. Contact the U.S. Department of Agriculture for more information regarding infested areas.

For material with soil from infested states, one of the following additional declarations must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"Material was grown in a medium that was treated prior to shipment in a manner and by approved methods which would ensure freedom from the soybean cyst nematode (HETERODERA GLYCINES)."

or

"Material was grown in a county or area of a county that has been sampled and found to be free of the soybean cyst nematode (HETERODERA GLYCINES) based on negative results of an official survey."

7. Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi)

Soil from quarantine areas of infested states is prohibited. Contact the U.S. Department of Agriculture for more information regarding quarantine areas.

For material with soil from non-quarantine areas of infested states, one of the following additional declarations must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"The material was produced and prepared for export in accordance with the conditions of entry specified in Quarantine Directive 82-01 of February 1, 1982."

or

"The soil originated in an area in which, on the basis of official surveys, Meloidogyne chitwoodi does not occur."

8. Ramorum blight and dieback (Phytophthora ramorum)

Refer to the requirements for rooted plants described in D-01-01: Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Entry and Spread of Phytophthora ramorum.

9. European brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum, syn. Helix aspersa)

Refer to the requirements described in D-09-01: Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction and spread of the European brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum [Müller], syn. Helix aspersa [Müller]) from the United States.


Appendix 7

Houseplant for personal use: examples of eligible and non-eligible plants