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The Mapmakers: An Essay in Four Parts
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

EXPLORERS

Amundsen
ROALD AMUNDSEN NAVIGATES THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE
Amundsen, Roald Englebert Gravning, (1872-1928)
Nordvest-passagen beretning om Gjøa-ekspeditionen, 1903-1907. Kristiania: H. Aschehoug & Co., 1908.
Roald Amundsen's "The North West Passage" Being the Record of a Voyage of Exploration of the Ship "Gjøa", 1903-1907. London: Archibald Constable, 1908.
Baffin
WILLIAM BAFFIN'S NORTHERN ADVENTURES
Dodge, Ernest S.
"Baffin, William." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. I, 1966, pp. 74-75.
Markham, Sir Clements R., (1830-1916)
The Voyages of William Baffin, 1612-1622. Introduction and annotations by Clements R. Markham. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1881.
Purchas, Samuel, (1577-1626)
Purchas, His Pilgrimage: or, Relations of the World and the Religions Observed in All Ages and Places Discovered, From the Creation Unto This Present [...]. London: printed by William Stansby for H. Fetherstone, 1613; 3rd edition, 1617.
Hakluytus posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes [...]. London: H. Fetherstone, 1625-1626.
Bernier
JOSEPH BERNIER CLAIMS THE ARCTIC ISLANDS FOR CANADA
Bernier, Joseph Elzéar
Report on the Dominion of Canada Government expedition to the Arctic Islands and Hudson Strait on board the D.G.S. 'Arctic'. Ottawa: Government Print Bureau, 1910; Ottawa: C. H. Parmelee, 1909. Available in French under the title: Rapport sur la croisière faite par le trois-mâts mixte "Arctic" de la Puissance du Canada dans l'archipel arctique et le détroit d'Hudson [1908-1909]. Ottawa: Imprimerie Nationale, 1910.
Master Mariner and Arctic Explorer: A Narrative of Sixty Years at Sea From the Logs and Yarns of Captain J. E. Bernier. Ottawa: Le Droit, 1939.
Les Mémoires de J. E. Bernier. Translated by Paul Terrien. Montreal: Quinze, c1983.
Cabot
JOHN CABOT: THE ENGLISH KING'S ITALIAN NAVIGATOR
Dufour, Pierre, and Michelle Guitard
Passages: A Treasure Trove of North American Exploration. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1992. Available in French under the title: Passages : Un écrin des exploration de l'Amérique du Nord.
Hakluyt, Richard, (1552?-1616)
The Principall [sic] Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation [...]. London: George Bishop and Ralph Newberie, 1589.
Harrisse, Henry, (1829-1910)
Jean et Sébastien Cabot, leur origine et leurs voyages. Paris: E. Leroux,1882.
Cartier
JACQUES CARTIER: NEW LAND FOR THE FRENCH KING
Cartier, Jacques
Voyages au Canada. Avec les relations des voyages de Gonneville, Verrazano et Roberval. Edited by Ch.-A. Julien, R. Herval and Th. Beauchesne, with an introduction by Ch.-A. Julien. Paris: François Maspero, 1981.
Hakluyt, Richard, (1552?-1616)
The Principall [sic] Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation [...]. London: George Bishop and Ralph Newberie, 1589.
Ramusio, Giovanni Battista, (1485-1557)
Primo [-terzo] volume, & terza editione delle navigationi et viaggi [...]. Venice: Nella stamperia de Giunti, 1563-1583 [vol. 3, 1565].
Schlesinger, Roger and Arthur P. Stabler
André Thévet's North America, A Sixteenth-Century View. Translation with notes and introduction. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1986.
Thévet, André, (1502-1590)
Les Singularitez de la France antartique, autrement nommée Amerique, & de plusieurs terres & isles decouvertes de nostre temps. Paris: Héritiers de Maurice de la Porte,1558.
Champlain
SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN: EXPLORER AND COLONIZER
Champlain, Samuel de (1567?-1635)
Les Voyages du sieur de Champlain, Xaintongeois, capitaine ordinaire pour le Roy, en la marine [...]. Paris: Jean Berjon, 1613.
Voyages et descouvertures faites en la Nouvelle France, depuis l'année 1615, jusques à la fin de l'année 1618 [...]. Paris: Claude de Collet, 1627.
Les Voyages de la Nouvelle France occidentale, dicte Canada, faits par le Sr de Champlain [...] depuis l'an 1603 jusques en l'an 1629 [...]. Paris: Louis Sevestre, 1632.
Trudel, Marcel
Histoire de la Nouvelle-France, volume I : Les Vaines Tentatives 1524-1603, Montréal, Fides, 1963; volume II : Le Comptoir 1604-1627; volume III : La Seigneurie des Cent-Associés 1627-1663. Montreal: Fides, 1963.
"Champlain, Samuel de." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. I, 1966, pp. 186-199.
Cook
JAMES COOK: EUROPE'S MOST CELEBRATED EXPLORER
Cook, James
A voyage to the Pacific Ocean Undertaken by the Command of His Majesty for Making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere to Determine the Position and Extent of the West Side of North America; Its Distance from Asia; and the Practicability of a Northern Passage to Europe[...]. London: W. and A. Strahan, 1784.
Ellis, William, ed.
An Authentic Narrative of a Voyage Performed by Captain Cook and Captain Clerke in His Majesty's Ships Resolution and Discovery During the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779 and 1780: In Search of a North-West Passage Between the Continents of Asia and America [...]. London: G. Robinson, 1782.
Williams, Glyndwr
"Cook, James." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. IV, 1980, pp. 162-167.
Corte Reals
THE CORTE REAL BROTHERS
Wytfliet, Corneille, (c. 1599-1607)
Histoire universelle des Indes occidentales [...]. Dovuy: Francois Fabri, 1607.
Davis
JOHN DAVIS: MASTER NAVIGATOR
Hakluyt, Richard, (1552?-1616)
The Principall [sic] Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation [...]. London: George Bishop and Ralph Newberie, 1589.
Markham, Albert
The Voyages and Works of John Davis, the Navigator. London: Hakluyt Society, 1880. Biography includes Davis's work, Seaman's Secrets. (London, 1599.) There is a map of Davis's voyages at the end of the introduction in Clements R. Markham (1889).
Markham, Sir Clements R., (1830-1916)
A Life of John Davis, the Navigator, 1550-1605, Discoverer of Davis Straits. New York: Dodd, Mead; London: George Philip & Sons, 1889.
Oleson, Tryggvi J., (1912-1963)
Early Voyages and Northern Approaches 1000-1632. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, c1963.
Purchas, Samuel, (1577-1626)
Purchas, His Pilgrimage: or, Relations of the World and the Religions Observed in All Ages and Places Discovered, From the Creation Unto This Present [...]. London: printed by William Stansby for H. Fetherstone, 1613; 3rd edition, 1617.
Hakluytus posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes [...]. London: H. Fetherstone, 1625-1626.
First Nations and Inuit
FIRST NATIONS AND INUIT
Dickason, Olive Patricia
Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples From Earliest Times. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, c1992.
Chad Gaffield, dir.
History of the Outaouais. Québec: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture, 1997.
Franklin
THE TRAGEDY OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN
Franklin, Sir John, (1786-1847)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the Years 1819, 20, 21, and 22 [...]. London: J. Murray, 1823.
Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1825-1826 and 1827 [...]. London: J. Murray, 1828; reprinted: Edmonton: G. Hurtig, 1971.
Holland, Clive
"Franklin, sir John." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. VII, 1988, pp. 323-328.
Fraser
SIMON FRASER AND THE FEARSOME RIVER
Fraser, Simon
Journal of a Voyage from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean Performed in the Year 1808. [Toronto]: Toronto Public Library [1967?].
The Letters and Journals of Simon Fraser 1806-1808. Introduction by W. Kaye Lamb, ed. Toronto: Macmillan, 1960.
Lamb, W. Kaye
"Fraser, Simon." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. IX, 1977, pp. 282-286.
Frobisher
MARTIN FROBISHER: THE PIRATE-EXPLORER
Francis, Daniel
Discovery of the North: The Exploration of Canada's Arctic. Edmonton: G. Hurtig, c1986.
Hakluyt, Richard, (1552?-1616)
The Principall [sic] Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation [...]. London: George Bishop and Ralph Newberie, 1589.
Howard, Richard
The North-West Passage. [Toronto]: Clarke Irwin (in collaboration with Jackdaw Publications, London), no. C15, c1968.
Settle, Dionyse
De Martini Forbisseri Angli navigatione in regiones occidentis et septentrionis. Narratio historica, ex Gallico sermone in Latinum. Translated by D. Joan Tho. Freigivm. Noribergae [Nürnberg, Germany]: C. Gerlachin & H.J. Montani, 1580.
Hearne
SAMUEL HEARNE AND MATONABBEE'S TREK TO THE ARCTIC OCEAN
Hearne, Samuel, (1745-1792)
A Journey From Prince of Wale's Fort in Hudson's Bay, to the Northern Ocean. Undertaken [...] in the Years 1769, 1770, 1771, & 1772. London: A. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1795.
Mackinnon, C.S.
"Hearne, Samuel." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. IV, 1980, pp. 339-342.
McGoogan, Kenneth, 1947-
Ancient Mariner : The Amazing Adventures of Samuel Hearne, the Sailor Who Walked to the Arctic Ocean. Toronto : HarperFlamingo Canada, 2003.
Hudson
HENRY HUDSON'S DARING EXPLOITS
Asher, G. M. (Georg Michael), d. 1905
Henry Hudson, the Navigator: The Original Documents in Which His Career Is Recorded. Collected, partly translated, and annotated, with an introduction By G.M. Asher. London: printed for the Hakluyt Society no. 27, 1860(6 microfiches); New York: B. Franklin, [1963?].
Bacon, Edgard Mayhew, (1855-1935)
Henry Hudson: His Times and His Voyages. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1907.
Educational Research Council of America, Social Science Staff
Explorers and Discoverers: Henry Hudson. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, [1970].
Gerritsz, Hessel, (1581?-1632)
The Arctic North-East and West Passage: Detectio freti Hudsoni, or, Hessel Gerritsz's Collection of Tracts by Himself, Massa, and De Quir, on the N.E. and W. Passage, Siberia, and Australia. Amsterdam: F. Muller, 1878.
Descriptio ac delineatio geographica detectionis freti: sive, transitus ad occasum suprà terras Americanas, in Chinam atq[ue], Iaponem ducturi, recens investigati ab M. Henrico Hudsono Anglo[...]. Amsterdam: Hefselij Gerardi, 1613.
Neatby, L. H.
"Hudson, Henry", Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. I, 1966, pp. 384-390.
Purchas, Samuel, (1577-1626)
Purchas, His Pilgrimage: or, Relations of the World and the Religions Observed in All Ages and Places Discovered, From the Creation Unto This Present [...]. London: printed by William Stansby for H. Fetherstone, 1613; 3rd edition, 1617.
Hakluytus posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes [...]. London: H. Fetherstone, 1625-1626.
Powys, Llewelyn, (1884-1939)
Henry Hudson. London: John Lane, 1927.
Read, John Meredith, (1837-1896)
A Historical Inquiry Concerning Henry Hudson, His Friends, Relatives and Early Life, His Connexion With the Muscovy Company and Discovery of Delaware Bay. Albany, New York: J. Munsell, 1866.
Jolliet and Marquette
LOUIS JOLLIET AND JACQUES MARQUETTE: DISCOVERING THE MISSISSIPPI
Delanglez, Jean
Louis Jolliet, vie et voyages (1645-1700). [Montreal]: Institut d'histoire de l'Amérique française, 1950.
Grandbois, Alain
Né à Québec. Critical edition by Estelle Côté and Jean Cléo Godin. Montreal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, collection La Bibliothèque du Nouveau Monde, 1994.
Marquette, Jacques, (1637-1675)
"Récit des voyages et découvertes du Père Marquette." Relations inédites de la Nouvelle-France (1672-1679) pour faire suite aux anciennes relations (1615-1672). Montreal: Éditions Élysée, [1974], vol. II.
Society of Jesus
Relation de ce qui s'est passe de plus remarquable . Quebec: Cramoisy, 1861.
Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed.
The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791. Cleveland: Burrows Bros., [1900]; [New York: Pageant, 1959].
Vachon, André
"Jolliet, Louis." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. I, 1966, pp. 392-398.
Kelsey
HENRY KELSEY: THE YOUNG ADVENTURER
Davies, K. G.
"Kelsey, Henry." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. II, 1969, p. 307-315.
Kelsey, Henry, (c.1670 - c.1724)
The Kelsey Papers. Introduction by Arthur G. Doughty and Chester Martin. Ottawa: F. A. Acland, 1929.
Knight, Stuart and Thanadelthur
KNIGHT, STUART, AND THANADELTHUR, THE NATIVE WOMAN GUIDE
Dodge, Ernest S.
"Knight, James." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. II, 1969, pp. 318-320.
Kenney, J. F.
The Founding of Churchill: Being the Journal of Captain James Knight, Governor-in-Chief in Hudson Bay, from the 14th of July to the 13th of September, 1717. Introduction and annotations by James F. Kenney. Toronto: Dent, 1932.
Thorman, G.E.
"Thanadelthur." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. II, 1969, p. 627-628.
Van Kirk, Sylvia
Many Tender Ties: Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670-1870. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, c1980.
Williams, Glyndwr
"Stuart, William." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. II, 1969, pp. 614-616.
La Salle
CAVELIER DE LA SALLE PUSHES THE BOUNDARIES OF NEW FRANCE
Dupré, Céline
"Cavelier de la Salle, René-Robert." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. 1, 1966, pp. 172-184.
Joutel, Henri, (1640?-1735)
Journal historique du dernier voyage que feu M. de la Sale fit dans le golfe de Mexique [...]. Paris: Estienne Robinot, 1713.
Tonti, Henri de, (1650?-1704)
Dernières Découvertes dans l'Amérique septentrionale de M. de la Sale [...]. Paris: Jean Guignard, 1697.
La Vérendrye
THE LA VÉRENDRYES: FAMILY OF EXPLORERS
Champagne, Antoine
"Gaultier de la Vérendrye, Louis-Joseph." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. III, 1974, pp. 241-244.
"Gaultier de la Vérendrye, De Boumois, Pierre." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. III, 1974, pp. 244-245.
"Gaultier du Tremblay, François." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. IV, 1979, pp. 288-289.
Burpee, Lawrence J., ed.
Journals and Letters of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes de La Vérendrye and His Sons: With Correspondence Between the Governors of Canada and the French Court, Touching the Search for the Western Sea. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1927.
Zoltvany, Yves F.
"Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye, Pierre." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. III, 1974, pp. 246-254.
Mackenzie
ALEXANDER MACKENZIE REACHES THE PACIFIC
Lamb, W. Kaye
"Mackenzie, sir Alexander." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. V, 1983, pp. 537-542.
Mackenzie, Sir Alexander, (1764-1820)
Voyages from Montreal [...] to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, in the Years 1789 and 1793. London: R. Noble, 1801.
McClure
ROBERT MCCLURE TRAVELS THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE
Baker, J. N. L.
"McClure (M'Clure), Sir Robert John Le Mesurier." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. X, 1972, pp. 454-455.
McClure, Sir Robert, (1807-1873)
The North-West Passage. Capt. McClure's Despatches From Her Majesty's Discovery Ship, "Investigator", off Point Warren and Cape Bathurst. London: J. Betts, 1853.
The Discovery of the North-West Passage by H.M.S., "Investigator" Capt. R. McClure, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854. Published by Sherard Osborn, from the logs and journals of Robert Le M. McClure. 4th ed. Edinburgh and London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Robert, 1857; London: W. Blackwood, 1865; Rutland, Vermont: Tuttle, [1969] (Reprint of the 1865 edition).
The Arctic Dispatches: Containing an Account of the Discovery of the North-West Passage. London: J. D. Potter, [1854?]
Missionaries
BLACK ROBES
Bréhant de Galinée, René de, (c. 1645 - 1678)
"Exploration of the Great Lakes 1669-1670 [...]."James H. Coyne, ed., Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records, IC (1903).
Hennepin, Louis, (1626- c. 1705)
Description de la Louisiane : nouvellement découverte au sud'öuest de la Nouvelle France, par ordre du roy : avec la carte du pay : les moeurs et la manière de vivre des sauvages; dediée à Sa Majesté. Paris: Chez la veuve Sebastien Huré [...], 1683.
A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America, Extending Above Four Thousand Miles Between New France & New Mexico: With a Deseription [sic] of the Great Lakes [...]. London: H. Bonwicke, 1699.
Margry, Pierre, (1818-1894)
"Voyage de Cavelier de la Salle avec les sulpiciens Dollier de Cassone et Bréhant de Galinée." Découvertes et établissements des Français dans l'ouest et dans le sud de l'Amérique septentrionale, 1614-1754. Paris: Imprimerie D. Jousaust, vol. I, 1880, pp 101-166.
Maurault, Olivier
"Sur les pas des missionnaires-explorateurs." Revue de l'Université d'Ottawa. I (1931) : 316-341.
"Bréhant de Galinée, René de." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966, pp. 126-127.
Sagard, Gabriel, (c. 1614 -c. 1636)
Le Grand Voyage du pays des Hurons : situé en l'Amérique vers la Mer douce, ès derniers confins de la Nouvelle France, dite Canada [...]. Paris: Denys Moreau, 1632; Montreal: Amis de l'Histoire, c1969.
The Long Journey to the Country of the Hurons. Edited with introduction and notes by George M. Wrong and translated into English by H.H. Langton. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1939.
Society of Jesus
Relations des Jésuites en Nouvelle-France, Paris and Rouen, 1632-1673, 41 volumes.
Relation de ce qui s'est passé en la Nouvelle France, en l'année 1634. Paris: Chez Sebastien Cramoisy, 1635.
Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed.
The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791. Cleveland: Burrows Bros., [1899]; [New York: Pageant, 1959].
Norse
THE NORSE IN "VINLAND"
Gordon, Kate, and Robert McGhee
The Vikings and their predecessors. Ottawa: National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada, c1981.
Jones, Gwyn
Eirik the Red, and Other Icelandic Sagas. Texts chosen and translated by Gwyn Jones. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
McGhee, Robert
Le Canada au temps des aventuriers. Hull, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization and Libre Expression, 1991.
Oleson, Tryggvi J., (1912-1963)
Early Voyages and Northern Approaches 1000-1632. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, c1963.
"Eirikr Thorvaldsson (Erik the Red)." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. I, 1966, p. 692.
"Leifr Eiriksson." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. I, 1966, p. 448-449.
Sveinsson, E.O. and Matthias Þorðarson, eds.
Íslenzk fornrit IV: Eyrbyggja Saga [...] Eiriks saga rauða. Reykjavik: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag, 1935.
Palliser and Hind
THE SCIENTIFIC SURVEYS OF PALLISER AND HIND
Gay, Charles
Le Capitaine Palliser et l'exploration des montagnes Rocheuses 1857-1859. Paris: [n.p.], 1860.
Hind, Henry Youle, (1823-1908)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857, and of the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858. London: Longman, Green, Longman & Roberts, 1860, 2 vol.
Jarrell, Richard A.
"Hind, Henry Youle." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. XIII, 1994, p. 471-473.
Palliser, John, (1807-1887)
Solitary Rambles and Adventures of a Hunter in the Prairies. London: John Murray, 1853.
Exploration - British North America: Papers Relative to the Exploration by Captain Palliser of That Portion of British North America Which Lies Between the Northern Branch of the River Saskatchewan and the Frontier of the United States and Between the Red River and the Rocky Mountains and Thence to the Pacific Ocean. London: Printed by G. E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1859.
Exploration: British North America - Further Papers Relative to the Exploration by the Expedition Under Captain Palliser of That Portion of British North America Which Lies Between the Northern Branch of the River Saskatchewan and the Frontier of the United States and Between the Red River and the Rocky Mountains and Thence to the Pacific Ocean. London: printed by G. E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1860; New York: Greenwood Press, 1969.
Exploration, British North America: The Journals, Detailed Reports and Observations Relative to the Exploration by Captain Palliser of that Portion of British North America Which, [...]. London: printed by G. E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1863.
Spry, Irene M.
Captain John Palliser and the Exploration of Western Canada. N.p.: n.p., 1959.
The Papers of the Palliser Expedition, 1857-1860. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1968.
"Palliser, John." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. XI, pp. 661-664.
Parry
WILLIAM PARRY AND THE ARCTIC ARCHIPELAGO
Johnson, Robert E.
"Parry, sir William Edward." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. VIII, 1985, pp. 683-686.
Parry, Edward, (1830-1890)
Memoirs of Rear-Admiral Sir W. Edward Parry [...], late Lieut. Governor of Greenwich Hospital. By his son, the Rev. Edward Parry, M.A. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Roberts, 1857.
Parry, Sir William Edward, (1790-1855)
Journal of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage From the Atlantic to the Pacific: Performed in the Years 1819-20 in His Majesty's Ships Hecla and Griper [...]. London: J. Murray, 1821.
Voyage fait en 1819 et 1820, sur les vaisseaux de S.M.B. l'Hecla et le Griper pour découvrir un passage du nord-ouest de l'océan Atlantique à la mer Pacifique [...]. Translated from the English by A.-J.-B. Defauconpret. Paris: Gide fils, 1822.
Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage From the Atlantic to the Pacific; Performed in the Years 1821-22-23 [...]. London, J. Murray, 1824; reprinted New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.
Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage From the Atlantic to the Pacific: Performed in the Years 1824-25 [...]. London: J. Murray, 1826; Philadelphia: H.C. Corey and I. Lea, 1826.
Journals of the First, Second and Third Voyages for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, in 1819-20-21-22-23-24-25 [...]. London: Murray, 1828, 5 vol.
Three Voyages for the Discovery of a North-West Passage From the Atlantic to the Pacific, and Narrative of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole. New York: Harpers, 1840, 2 vol.
Pond
PETER POND'S SEARCH FOR FORTUNE
Gates, Charles M.
Five Fur Traders of the Northwest. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society. 1965.
Gough, Barry M.
"Pond, Peter." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. V, 1983, pp. 681-685.
Innis, Harold A.
Peter Pond and the Influence of Capt. James Cook on Exploration in the Interior of North America. Ottawa: Royal Society of Canada, 1928.
Peter Pond, Fur Trader and Adventurer. Toronto: Irwin and Gordon, 1930.
Wagner, Henry Raup, (1862-1957)
Peter Pond, Fur Trader and Explorer. [New Haven]: Yale University Library, 1955.
Radisson and Des Groseilliers
RADISSON AND DES GROSEILLIERS: CAESARS OF THE WILDERNESS
Adams, Arthur T, dir.
The Explorations of Pierre Esprit Radisson: From the Original Manuscript in the Bodleian Library and the British Museum. Modernisation of the text by Loren Kallsen, Minneapolis: Ross & Haines, 1961.
Fournier, Martin
Pierre-Esprit Radisson [1636-1710]. Aventurier et commerçant. Sillery, Quebec: Septentrion, 2001.
Nute, Grace Lee
Caesars of the Wilderness, Médard Chouart, sieur Des Groseilliers and Pierre Esprit Radisson, 1618-1710, New York and London: Appleton-Century, 1943.
"Chouart Des Groseilliers, Médard." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. I, 1969, pp. 223-228.
Radisson, Pierre-Esprit, (1636?-1710)
Journal 1682-1683 : Les Débuts de la Nouvelle-France. [Montreal]: Stanké, 1979.
Les Aventures extraordinaires d'un coureur des bois : Récits de voyages au pays des Indiens d'Amérique. Translated from the English and annotated by Berthe Fouchier-Axelsen. [Quebec]: Éditions Nota Bene, 1999.
Scull, Gideon D., ed.
Voyages of Peter Esprit Radisson: Being an Account of his Travels and Experiences Among the North American Indians from 1652 to 1684. Transcript of the original manuscript at the Bodleian Library and the British Museum. [Boston: The Prince Society, 1885].
Trudel, Marcel
Histoire de la Nouvelle-France, volume I : Les Vaines Tentatives 1524-1603, Montréal, Fides, 1963; volume II : Le Comptoir 1604-1627; volume III : La Seigneurie des Cent-Associés 1627-1663. Montreal: Fides, 1963.
Ross
JOHN ROSS AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE MAGNETIC POLE
Dodge, Ernest S.
"Ross, sir John." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. VIII, 1985, p. 770-774.
Huish, Robert (1777-1850)
The Last Expedition of Capt. Sir John Ross, R.N. for the Discovery of a North-West Passage with an Abridgment of the Former Voyages. [...]. London: George Virtue, [1836?].
Ross, Sir John, (1777-1856)
A Voyage of Discovery, Made Under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty's Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin's Bay, and Enquiring Into the Probability of a North-West Passage. London: J. Murray, 1819.
Narrative of the Second Voyage of Captain Ross to the Arctic Regions in [...] 1829-33; Compiled Principally from the Evidence of Captain Ross [...] Before the Committee of the House of Commons. London: H. Renshaw, 1834.
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829-1830, 1831, 1832, 1833 [...]. London, [1834]; reprinted, 2 vol., London: A.W. Webster, 1835.
Russians
RUSSIANS IN THE NORTH PACIFIC
Fitzhugh, William W., and Aron Crowell
Crossroads of Continents: Cultures of Siberia and Alaska. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.
Leroi-Gourhan, André, ed.
Les Explorateurs célèbres. 3rd edition. Paris: L. Mazenod, [c1965]; Geneva: L. Mazenod, 1947.
Lisiansky, Urey
A Voyage Round the World, in the Years 1803, 1804,1805, and 1806: Performed by Order of His Imperial Majesty Alexander the First, Emperor of Russia, in the Ship Neva. London: Printed for John Booth, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown, by S. Hamilton, Weybridge, Surrey, 1814; Amsterdam: N. Israel [1968]; New York: Da Capa Press, [1968]
Waldman Carl, and Alan Wexler
Who Was Who in World Exploration. New York: Facts on file, c1992.
Zagoskin, Lavrentii Alekseevich, (1808-1890)
Lieutenant Zagoskin's Travels in Russian America, 1842-1844 [...]. [Toronto]: University of Toronto Press, [c1967].
Spanish
THE SPANISH EXPLORE THE WEST COAST
Alcalá-Galiano, Dionisio, (1762-1805)
Relación del viage hecho por las goletas Sutil y Mexicana en el año de 1792 [...]. (An account of the trip made by the schooners Sutil and Mexicana in the year 1792 {}.) Madrid: Real, 1802.
Guitard, Michelle
"La Baie Nootka." August 1974. Unpublished Work No. 162, National Historic Parks and Sites. Miscellaneous historical reports, (1973-1975), Parks Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.
Kendrick, John
The Men With Wooden Feet, the Spanish Exploration of the Pacific Northwest. Toronto: NC Press, c1985.
The Voyage of Sutil and Mexicana 1792: The Last Spanish Exploration of the Northwest Coast of America. Translation and introduction by John Kendrick. Spokane, Washington: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1991.
Mourelle de la Rúa, Francisco Antonio, (1750-1820)
Journal of a Voyage in 1775 to Explore the Coast of America Northward of California, by the Second Pilot of the fleet, Don Francisco Antonio Maurelle [i.e. Mourelle] in the King's Schooner Called the Sonora and Commanded by Don Juan Francisco de la Bodega. London: J. Nichols, 1781.
Thompson
DAVID THOMPSON: THE INTREPID SURVEYOR
Belyea, Barbara
Columbia Journals, David Thompson. Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, c1994.
Bigsby, John
The Shoe and the Canoe. Vol I. London: Chapman & Hall, 1850.
Glover, Richard
David Thomspon's Narrative, 1784-1812: A New Edition with added Material. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1962.
Nicks, John
"Thompson, David." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. VIII, 1985, pp. 878-884.
Tyrrell, J. B., ed. (1853-1913)
A Brief Narrative of the Journeys of David Thompson, in North-Western America. Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1888.
A Brief Narrative of the Journeys of David Thompson, Narrative of His Explorations in Western America. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1916.
Vancouver
GEORGE VANCOUVER'S GUIDE TO THE NORTHWEST COAST
Lamb, W. Kaye
"Vancouver, George." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. IV, 1980, pp. 743-748.
Vancouver, George, (1757-1798)
A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean [...] in Which the Coast of North-West America Has Been Carefully Examined, and Accurately Surveyed [...] and Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795 [...]. London: G.G. and J. Robinson, and J. Edwards, 1798.

SUBJECT INFORMATION

Arctic Survival
SURVIVING THE ARCTIC
Francis, Daniel
Discovery of the North. Edmonton: G. Hurtig, 1986.
Colonization
ATTEMPTS AT SETTLING THE "NEW" LAND
Cell, Gillian
"The Cupid's Cove Settlement: A Case Study of the Problems of Colonization." Early European Settlement and Exploitation in Atlantic Canada, George M. Story, ed. St. John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1982, 97-114.
Cell, Gillian, ed.
Newfoundland Dis-covered: English Attempts at Colonization, 1610-1630. London: Hakluyt Society, 1981; 2nd series, #180.
Davies, Ralph.
The Rise of the Atlantic Economies. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1973.
Harris, R. Cole
"European Beginning in the Northwest Atlantic: A Comparative View." Seventeenth Century New England: a conference / held by the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, June 18 and 19, 1982. D. Hall & D.G. Allen, eds. Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, v. 63; Boston: The Society, 1984, pp.119-52.
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl
"Fear of Hot Climates in the Anglo-American Colonial Experience." William & Mary Quarterly. 3rd ser., 41, No. 2 (April 1984), 213-40.
Quinn, David
"Newfoundland in the Consciousness of Europe in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries." Early European Settlement and Exploitation in Atlantic Canada. George M. Story, ed. St. John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1982, pp. 9-30.
Scammell , G.V.
The First Imperial Age: European Overseas Expansion c. 1400 - 1715. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
Shammas, Carole
"English Commercial Develop-ment and American Coloniz-ation 1560-1620." The Westward Enterprise, English Activities in Ireland, the Atlantic and America, 1480-1650. K.R. Andrews, N.P. Canny, and P.E.H. Hair, eds. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1979, pp. 151-174.
Fishery
WATERS OF RICHES
Barkham, Selma
"Aperçu de l'évolution de la pêche sur les côtes de l'Est canadien." 118e congrès national des sociétées historiques et scientifiques. Pau, 1993, pp. 173-180.
Davis, Ralph
The Rise of the Atlantic Economies. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973.
Harris, R.C. & G. Matthews
Historical Atlas of Canada, Vol. I. Plate 22, "The 16th Century Fishery"; plate 21, "The Migratory Fisheries".Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.
Janzen, Olaf Uwe
"The French Fishery at Newfoundland, ca.1500-1789." Unpublished report prepared for the Government of Canada, Department of Justice, September 1989
Pope, Peter E.
"The 16th-Century Fishing Voyage." How Deep Is The Ocean? Historical Essays on Canada's Atlantic Fishery. James E. Candow and Carol Corbin, eds. Sydney, NS: University College of Cape Breton Press, 1997, pp.15-30.
Turgeon, Laurier
"Le temps des pêches lointaines: permanences et transformations (vers 1500-vers 1850)." Histoire des Pêches Maritimes en France. Michel Mollat, ed. Toulouse: Privat, 1989, pp. 133-181.
Fur Trade
FURS OF GOLD
Francis, Daniel
Battle for the West: Fur Traders and the Birth of Western Canada. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1982.
HBC
THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
Francis, Daniel
Battle for the West: Fur Traders and the Birth of Western Canada. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1982.
Maps
MAPMAKERS: AN ESSAY IN FOUR PARTS - and MAPS TEXTS
Allen, J. L., ed.
North American Exploration: Vol. 1, A New World Disclosed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
North American Exploration: Vol. 2, A Continent Defined. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
North American Exploration: Vol. 3, A Continent Comprehended. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
Biggar, H. P., ed.
The Works of Samuel de Champlain. Vol. III. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1929.
Cooke, Alan and Clive Holland
The Exploration of Northern Canada: 500-1920, A Chronology. Arctic History Press: Toronto, 1978.
Cumming, W. P., R. A. Skelton and D. B. Quinn
The Discovery of North America. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971.
Cumming, W. P., S. E. Hillier, et al.
The Exploration of North America, 1630-1776. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974.
Ganong, W. F.
Crucial Maps in the Early Cartography and Place-Nomenclature of the Atlantic Coast of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964.
Heidenreich, C. E.
Explorations of Samuel de Champlain, 1603-1632. Cartographica, Monograph No. 17. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976
___. and E. Dahl
"The French Mapping of North America in the Seventeenth Century." The Map Collector, Issue No. 13, 1980, pp. 2-11.
"The French Mapping of North America in the Eighteenth Century." The Map Collector, Issue No. 19, 1982, pp. 2-7
Warkentin, J. and R. I. Ruggles.
Historical Atlas of Manitoba: A Selection of Facsimile Maps, Plans and Sketches from 1612 to 1969. Winnipeg: The Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba, 1970.
Woodward, D., ed.
Five Centuries of Map Printing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.
NWC
THE NORTH WEST COMPANY
Francis, Daniel
Battle for the West: Fur Traders and the Birth of Western Canada. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1982.
Northwest Passage
THE FABLED NORTHWEST PASSAGE
Delgado, James P.
Across the Top of the World: The Quest for the Northwest Passage.Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1999.
Friel, Ian
"The Three-Masted Ship and Atlantic Voyages." Raleigh in Exeter: Privateering and Colonisation in the Reign of Elizabeth I. Joyce Youings, ed. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1985, pp. 21?37.
Ryan, A.N.
"France and the Atlantic in the Sixteenth Century." Maritime History, Vol. I: The Age of Discovery. John Hattendorf, ed. Malabar, Florida: Krieger, 1996, pp. 279-297.
Scammell, G.V.
The First Imperial Age: European Overseas Expansion c. 1400 - 1715. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
Scurvy
SCURVY: SCOURGE OF VOYAGERS
Delgado, James P.
Across the Top of the World: The Quest for the Northwest Passage. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1999.
Graham, Gerald
Empire of the North Atlantic; The Maritime Struggle for North America. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1950.
Milton-Thompson, G.J.
"The Changing Character of the Sailor's Diet and Its Influence on Disease." Problems of Medicine at Sea. Basil Greenhill, ed. Maritime Monographs and Reports No. 12; Greenwich, London: National Maritime Museum, 1974, pp. 20-27.
Transportation
TRANSPORTATION TEXTS
Amundsen, Roald
The North West Passage. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1908.
Boissonnault, Real
Jacques Cartier: Explorer and Navigator. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1987.
Cook, Warren L.
Flood Tide of Empire: Spain and the Pacific Northwest, 1543-1819. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.
Delgado, James
Across the Top of the World: the Quest for the North West Passage. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1999.
Dorion-Robitaille, Yolande
Captain J.E. Bernier's Contribution to Canadian Sovereignty in the Arctic. Ottawa: DIAND, 1978.
Firstbrook, P.L.
The Voyage of the Matthew: John Cabot and the Discovery of North America. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1997.
Fisher, Robin
Vancouver's Voyage: Charting the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1992.
Fitzhugh, William and Elisabeth I. Ward, eds.
Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000.
Francis, Daniel
Battle for the West: Fur Traders and the Birth of Western Canada. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1982.
Discovery of the North: The Exploration of Canada's Arctic. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1986.
Gough, Barry
The Northwest Coast: British Navigation, Trade and Discoveries to 1812. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1992.
Innis, Harold
The Fur Trade in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1956.
McGhee, Robert.
Canada Rediscovered. Hull: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1991.
Morse, Eric W.
Fur Trade Canoe Routes of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969.
Lamb, W. Kaye, ed.
Vancouver's Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World, 1791-95. London: The Hakluyt Society, 4 vols, 1984.
Vinland Sagas
THE VINLAND SAGAS
Magnusson, Magnus & Hermann Pálsson
The Vinland Sagas; The Norse Discovery of America. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966; New York: New York University Press, 1966.
Mowat, Farley
Westviking: the Ancient Norse in Greenland and North America. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1973.
Rode, Eva
"The Vinland sagas and their manuscripts." Viking Voyages to North America. Birth L. Clausen, ed., Gillian Fellows Jenson, trans. Roskilde: The Viking Ship Museum, 1993, pp. 22?29.
Smiley, Jane (preface) and Robert Kellogg (introduction)
The Sagas of Icelanders: A Selection. New York: Viking, 2000.
Quinn, David, ed.
New American World; A Documentary History of North America to 1612. Volume I: America from Concept to Discovery. Early Exploration of North America. NY: Arno Press, 1979.

OTHER SOURCES

Cardini, Franco
1492. L'Europe au temps de la découverte de l'Amérique. Solar [1989-1990].
Chartrand, René
Patrimoine militaire canadien d'hier à aujourd'hui. Montreal: Art Global, vols. I and II, (1993 and 1995).
Delgado, James P.
Across the Top of the World: The Quest for the Northwest Passage. Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1999.
James, Thomas, (1593?-1635?)
The Strange and Dangerous Voyage of Captain Thomas James, in His Intended Discovery of the Northwest Passage [...]. London: John Partridge, 1633.
Markham, Sir Clements R., (1830-1916)
The Threshold of the Unknown Region. London: S. Low, Marston, Low & Searle, 1873.
The Land of Silence: A History of Arctic and Antarctic Exploration. Cambridge: The University Press, 1921.
Story, G.M., dir.
Early European Settlement and Exploitation in Atlantic Canada, Selected Papers. St. John's, Newfoundland: Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1982.
Thévenot, Melchisédech
Relations de divers voyages curieux qui n'ont point esté publiées, et qu'on a traduit ou tiré des originaux des voyageurs français, espagnols, allemands portugais, anglois, hollandois, persans, arabes & autres orientaux, données au public par les soins de Melchisedech Thevenot; le tout enrichi de plantes non décrites, d'animaux inconnus à l'Europe, & de cartes géographiques qui n'ont point encore été publiées. Paris: Thomas Moette, libraire, 1696.



Proactive Disclosure