canadian ~ twenty-first century literature since 1999

"The Short Story in Canada" – The top 20 links returned by Google

December 2005

by Michael Bryson

Start with the assumption that Google's search engine knows something the rest of us don't. Add the phrase "the story story in Canada" (in quotations). What do you get? A result that ought not to please anybody.

TDR reviews the "Top 20" results of a Google search on "the short story in Canada" and pulls a couple of possibly helpful links from the deeper reaches of Googleworld. Does the short story in Canada have a life on the Internet? Yes, a bizarre one.

  1. BookNinja
  2. Was it Yeats who said life was a circle? No. A spiral? The top link Google returns for "the short story in Canada" is a thread on BookNinja started by me. I asked if others knew of decent non-fiction written about the short story in Canada. Here's a list paraphrased from the replies:

  • The University of Toronto Quarterly (Volume 68, Number 4, Fall 1999) did two special issues on the short story in Canada. The contents blend academic essays with "writer statements."
  • Gary Geddes' The Art of Short Fiction (Pearson Education Canada, 2003) contains interesting 'craft' statements by Canadian authors.
  • The Mercury Press published a collection of interviews with fiction writers a couple of years back too, but I don't remember how many were short story writers per se. (Turns out the book is The Power to Bend Spoons: Interviews with Canadian Novelists, 1998.)
  • The New Quarterly Special Double Issue, Volume XXI, Numbers 2 & 3. "Wild Writers We Have Known: A Celebration of the Canadian Short Story and Story Writers."
  • John Metcalf has edited some good anthologies with criticism. Writers Talking (Porcupine's Quill, 2003), How Stories Mean (Porcupine's Quill, 1993), to name but two. Also dip into Volleys (Porcupine's Quill, 1990), which centres on the place of the short story in Canada. 
  • Tim Struthers also edited a volume of essays that deals primarily with the short story. (It's possibly: New Directions from Old. Red Kite, 1991.)
  • A Sense of Style: Studies in the Art of Fiction in English-Speaking Canada by W. J. Keith (ECW, 1990).
  1. Pocupine’s Quill, How Stories Mean
  2. Porcupine's Quill's promo page for one of John Metcalf's anthologies mentioned in #1, though actually edited by Metcalf and J.R. (Tim) Struthers. Here's what the publisher has to say about this collection: 

    How Stories Mean gathers together criticism and theory written by short story writers themselves. Several of the essays were newly written for this book. The essays document the establishment and growth of the story form in Canada over the last twenty-five years but the collection is far more than archival. It offers endless insights into how writers write and how they wish to be read.

Ah, endless insights . . . .

  1. Pocupine’s Quill, Lovers & Other Strangers
  2. A short story collection by Carol Malyon. For some reason, it takes third place in Googleworld's list on the short story in Canada.

  3. CanadianContent, January 1999
  4. "Regional Short Stories: The Literary Highway" by Wayne Ray. This is an archived essay from the online magazine CanadianContent, currently on hiatus. It begins: 

    Canada was first linked by natural highways: trails, rivers, lakes and sea. As the country became populated the links were by rail, highways, ferries, bridges and bigger boats and eventually by air, via planes or electronic means. Along the way, thoughts and ideas appeared. Words and phrases were dropped or picked until a voice was heard. One voice grew into many and a national voice was heard. A Canadian voice, and then a Canadian Literary voice, but was it really Canadian? Is there one Canadian voice? 

Along the way, thoughts and ideas appeared? Out of thin air, just like that? Jeez, Louise! I sure hope it didn't happen like that.

  1. The Canadian Encyclopedia: Short Fiction in English 
  2. This is the sort of link one would expect to find high in a Google search on any topic: the general overview, in this case provided by The Canadian Encyclopedia. However, what perverse nonsense it is! It begins by telling us that "short fiction in English encompasses a wide range of forms, including the ESSAY, sketch and short story." (Short fiction includes the essay?) Then it goes on to provide a survey of the Canadian short story scene between 1821 and "since the 1920s." It cites three book titles: Around the Mountain: Scenes from Montreal Life by Hugh Hood (1967); Roughing It In The Bush by Susanna Moodie (1852); and Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town by Stephen Leacock (1912).  A list of the writers named in this blurb isn't without historical significance; however, any bearing on contemporary reality is beyond suspicious and well into entirely lacking.

  3. The Canadian Encyclopedia: Short Fiction in English
  4. For reasons known only to the wizards at Google, the sixth item returned on this list is the same as the fifth item returned.

  5. Course Proposal: Senior Course in Canadian Literature
  6. For a better take one what's happened recently with the short story in Canada, check out the reading list for Sara Jamieson's course at the University of Calgary, "The Short Story in Canada." According to this page, authors studied may include:

    Margaret Laurence, Alistair MacLeod, Aritha van Herk, Thomas King, Barbara Gowdy, Rohinton Mistry, Alice Munro, Sinclair Ross, Margaret Atwood, Dionne Brand, W.D. Valgardson, Sandra Birdsell, Mavis Gallant, Guy Vanderhaeghe, Diane Schoemperlen, Lynn Coady, Edna Alford, Rudy Wiebe, and Eden Robinson.

    If you sign up for this course, you can expect to tackle this pressing question: Why do short story collections never get picked for Oprah’s book club? Along with these others:

  • How have changing economic and material conditions affected the production of short stories in Canada over the course of the twentieth century and in the present? 
  • How do short stories facilitate the articulation of Canadian identities? 
  • How do definitions of the short story as a "marginal" genre intersect with forms of difference including race, region, gender, sexuality, and age? 
  • How does the short story mediate between categories of popular and "literary" fiction? 
  1. A Reviewing Journal of Canadian Materials for Young People (Volume 15, Number 2, 1987)
  2. A review by James Kingstone of one of the touchstone anthologies of short fiction in Canada: The Oxford Book of Canadian Short Stories in English, selected by Margaret Atwood and Robert Weaver. This review is from March 1987. It is of the 1986 edition of the anthology, which has since been updated. Kingstone lists three categories of writers:

  • "perennial favourites": Stephen Leacock, Charles G.D. Roberts, Duncan Campbell Scott, and Hugh Garner
  • "our middle generation of celebrity-authors": Margaret Atwood, Alice Munro, Mordecai Richler, Timothy Findley
  • "this younger generation of developing authors": Katherine Govier, Matt Cohen, Guy Vanderhaeghe, and Sandra Birdsell 

It's now 20 years later: How the world has changed! In his conclusion, Kingstone suggests The Oxford ... (1986) recognized "the promising future of the short story in Canada." This is highly suspicious, as is Kingstone's suggestion that the anthology is an argument in favour of the "continuing importance [of the short story] in our culture." 

From the point of view of  2005, the short story appears on the endangered list. The form enjoys popularity among writers and creative writing programs; however, the interest in the genre of publishers, agents, editors and the reading public has surely shrunk. Was the 1980s the turning point? 

  1. Wayne Ray’s essay 
  2. See #4 on this list. This time the essay is on the Canadian Poetry Association website.

  3. University of Waterloo daily bulletin: August 3, 2000
  4. The special two-issue edition of The New Quarterly -- mentioned in #1 on this list -- began as a conference at the University of Waterloo in September 2000. It was advertised by the University in August of that year:

    Wild Writers We Have Known: A Celebration of the Canadian Short Story in English, on September 21 to 24, will bring together some of "the most dynamic and inventive writers working in the short-story form today." ... The series of lectures, readings and responses, panel discussions, and dramatic performances is designed to appeal to "students and teachers of literature and creative writing, to writers and to those keen readers who want an insider's view of the writing life and of the peculiar excitement of finding just the right word."

Yes! "Peculiar excitement"! This is exactly how to promote short stories, so that the fortunes of the genre will be revived! (or is that revivified?). (First word, right word?)

  1. Literature in English from Canada
  2. From the Western Washington University in Bellingham, Washington, USA; a huge Canadian Literature bibliography. Nothing specifically about the short story. A selected list of the titles that MAY refer to short stories includes:

  • Bell, Inglis Freeman and Jennifer Gallup. A Reference Guide to English, American and Canadian Literature: An Annotated Checklist of Bibliographical and Other Reference Materials. Vancouver : U of British Columbia P, 1971.
  • Benson, Eugene and William Toye, eds. The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature. 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford U P, 1997.
  • Contemporary Canadian Authors. Toronto: Gale Canada, 1996.
  • Lecker, Robert and Jack David, eds. The Annotated Bibliography of Canada's Major Authors. Downsview, Canada : ECW, 1987.
  • Morgan, Henry J. Bibliotheca Canadensis: Or, A Manual of Canadian Literature. [Ottawa, Printed by G. E. Desbarats, 1867.] Detroit : Gale Research, 1968.
  • Moritz, Albert and Theresa. The Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to Canada. Toronto: Oxford U P, 1987.
  • Moyles, R. G. English-Canadian Literature to 1900 : A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research, 1976.
  • New, William H., ed. Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2002.
  • Story, Norah. The Oxford Companion to Canadian History and Literature. Toronto: Oxford U P, 1967.
  • Toye, William, ed. Supplement to the Oxford Companion to Canadian History and Literature. Toronto: Oxford U P, 1973.
  1. Studies in Canadian Literature (Vol 6, No 1)
  2. Here he is again: J.R. (Tim) Struthers. This time for an essay with a really loonnnngggg title: "Some highly subversive activities: A brief polemic and a checklist of works on Alice Munro." The best I can tell, this volume appeared in the early 1980s. The "checklist" cites 115 words on Alice Munro, which tells me one thing right away: In the decade or so after Munro started publishing books, lots of people wrote about her and/or her work. Struthers' concern is that few of these people saw any need to comment on what others were saying:

    In the case of criticism on Alice Munro, the statistics are astounding. ... the following checklist identifies more than eighty articles and sections of books which discuss Munro's fiction .... it is somewhat shocking to discover that only three articles quote or comment on the work of other critics. 

    What interests me, for the purpose of this Googleworld project, is that Struthers' list highlights some of the historical record on the short story in Canada. In fact, it provides a better bibliography on this subject than the huge list provided by the Western Washington University. Some titles on Struthers' checklist (note the title highlighted in red ... then check out again #8 on this list. So, the fate of the short story didn't turn in the 1980s ....; it's always been poor.):

  • Bowering, George. "Modernism Could Not Last Forever." Canadian Fiction Magazine, Nos. 32/33 (1979/80), p. 4.
  • Grady, Wayne, ed. The Penguin Book of Canadian Short Stories. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin, 1980, pp. v-vi, 298.
  • Hancock, Geoff. "Here and Now: Innovation and Change in the Canadian Short Story." Canadian Fiction Magazine, No. 27 (1977), pp. 5, 7, 15, 16.
  • Hancock, Geoff. "Foreword: Maps, Geography and the Canadian Short Story." In Transitions II: Short Fiction; A Source Book of Canadian Literature. Ed. Edward Peck. Vancouver CommCept, 1978, (pp. iii, iv, v].
  • Hodgins, Jack, and Bruce Nesbitt. Teaching Short Fiction; A Resource Book to Transitions II:; Short Fiction. Vancouver: CommCept, 1978, pp. 26-27, 42, 45, 46, 47, 51, 55, 56, 60.
  • MacCulloch, Clare. The Neglected Genre: The Short Story in Canada. Guelph, Ont.; Alive, 1973, pp. 26, 70.
  • New, William H. "The Canadian Short Story: Introduction." World Literature Written in English, 11,No. 1 (April 1972), 7-8.
  • Owen, Ivon, and Morris Wolfe. "Introduction." In The Best Modern Canadian Short Stories. Ed. Ivon Owen and Morris Wolfe. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1978, pp. 8, 11.
  • Stephens, Donald. "The Short Story in English." Canadian Literature, No. 41 (Summer 1969), p. 126. Rpt. in The Sixties: Canadian Writers and Writing of the Decade. Ed. George Woodcock. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1969, p. 126.
  • Struthers, J. R. (Tim). "Myth and Reality: A Regional Approach to the Canadian Short Story." Laurentian University Review, 8, No. 1 (Nov. 1975), 28, 30, 44-45.
  1. Studies in Canadian Literature (Vol 17, No 2)
  2. Another essay from Studies in Canadian Literature. This one by Gerald Lynch on Canada's first short story cycle: Duncan Campbell Scott's In the Village of Viger (1896).

    Readers need only call to mind such works as Stephen Leacock's Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town (1912) and Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich (1914), F.P. Grove's Over Prairie Trails (1922), George Elliott's The Kissing Man (1962), Mordecai Richler's The Street (1969), Margaret Laurence's A Bird in the House (1970), and Alice Munro's Who Do You Think You Are? (1978) to appreciate that much of the best in Canadian short fiction has been achieved in the genre of the short story cycle, and to agree with W.H. New that Scott's Viger stands at the head of a rich tradition indeed.

    Can you call to mind all of those? I can't.

    As above, it is the essay's bibliography that most interests this project (note the title in red, it comes up again and again and again and again in the Google list ....). Some titles:

  • Susan Lohafer and Jo Ellyn Clarey eds. Short Story Theory at a Crossroads (Baton Rouge: Louisiane State University, 1989) 
  • Susan Garland Mann, The Short Story Cycle: A Genre Companion and Reference Guide (New York: Greenwood, 1989)
  • John Metcalf, What is a Canadian Literature? (Guelph, Ont.: Red Kite Press, 1988) 
  • The Narrative Voice: Short Stories and Reflections By Canadian Authors (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1972) 
  • W.H. New, Dreams of Speech and Violence: The Art of the Short Story in Canada and New Zealand (Toronto: UP, 1987) 
  1. BC Book World
  2. Which brings us to ... the biography of "NEW, William." New's name has come up a number of times already on this list. He is one of the most prolific critics on the subject of the short story in Canada, apparently. Who is he?

    Born in Vancouver on March 28, 1938, William Herbert (Bill) New is one of the most prolific and versatile literary critics in Canada, having written and edited more than 40 books. He enrolled at the University of British Columbia in 1956 and received degrees from UBC in English and Geography (B.Ed. 1961, M.A. 1963), followed by a doctorate from the University of Leeds in 1966. His dissertation was on the modern Bildungsroman as a social paradigm. He taught English course at UBC from 1965 to 2003, specializing in the English literatures of the Commonwealth. In 1966, Bill New became assistant editor of Canadian Literature, working with George Woodcock and Donald Stephens. Quietly remarkable, New edited the review publication Canadian Literature, from 1977 to 1995. ... In 2004, New renewed his affiliation with Canadian Literature by becoming Editor Emeritus on the masthead.

  3. University of Toronto Quarterly - Volume 68 Number 4, Fall 1999
  4. Neil Besner leads off his essay "Reading Mavis Gallant's 1940s in the 1990s: 'The Fenton Child'" with a quotation from Michael Ondaatje: "Mavis Gallant's 'The Moslem Wife' has more going on in it than five novels" and a quotation from Gallant herself: "Fiction, like painting, consists entirely of more than meets the eye; otherwise it is not worth a second's consideration."


  5. McGill-Queen’s University Press - History of Canadian Literature
  6. Here he is again: W.H. New, on his publisher's website, for the book History of Canadian Literature (2001). Which the publisher calls, "The definitive text on Canadian literature":

    New discusses both Aboriginal and European mythologies, looking at pre-Contact narratives and also at the way Contact experience altered hierarchies of literary value. He then considers representations of the "real," whether in documentary, fantasy, or satire; the precedence of historical romance and the social construction of Nature and State; ironic subversions of power, the politics of cultural form, and the relevance of the media to a representation of community standard and individual voice. New suggests some ways in which writers of the later twentieth century codified such issues as history, gender, ethnicity, and literary technique itself. All genres are represented, with examples chosen primarily, but not exclusively, from anglophone and francophone texts. 

  7. University of Auckland, New Zealand
  8. I have no idea why this link would show up in Googleworld, except that this page includes (among many others) the citation:

  • New, William H. Dreams of speech and violence: the art of the short story in Canada and New Zealand. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987. 
  1. Review of The Oxford Book of Canadian Short Stories in English
  2. Same as #8 above.

  3. University of Manitoba English courses 2005/06
  4. Perhaps of interest is L01 (1T) The Short Story Cycle: A Postcolonial Genre: Libin. Which is described as follows:

    William H. New, in his study of the short story in Canada & New Zealand, Dreams of Speech & Violence (1978), argues that short fiction flourishes in postcolonial cultures because it represents a means of turning “marginality to its own purpose.” This course will examine a paradoxical subgenre of short fiction in terms of New’s assertion, by discussing whether the short story cycle (alternately termed the short story sequence, the linked short story collection, etc.) represents a specifically postcolonial genre, a means of articulating a heretofore-silenced culture. A literary form that simultaneously foregrounds the compact economy of the individual short story — defined by Edgar Allan Poe as a genre distinguished by its unity of effect— while asking us to think of these distinct components as part of a larger whole, the short story sequence presents itself as a genre representing both cohesion & entropy, solidarity & fragmentation, coherence & dissolution. Through the study of five collections focusing on cultural communities dealing with issues of ethnic identity, postcolonial subjectivity, & the place of the marginalized culture within a larger Western context, we will explore how the genre of the short story sequence is used as a strategy for describing the postcolonial condition.

  5. Project MUSE

Access restricted.

Beyond Google's Top 20

This title came up numerous times, very often as links to used-book sites.

A brand spanking new anthology on the short story in Canada. All of the usual suspects are included, plus what James Kingstone would call "the younger generation of developing writers." Who are these folks? According to the editors, they are (along with their selected story):

  • Rohinton Mistry "Squatter"
  • Dionne Brand "At the Lisbon Plate" 
  • Antanas Sileika "The Man Who Read Voltaire"
  • André Alexis "Kuala Lumpur"
  • Timothy Taylor "The Resurrection Plant"
  • Lisa Moore "The Lonely Goatherd"
  • Michael Crummey "Bread"
  • Michael Redhill "Human Elements"
  • Eden Robinson "Traplines"
  • David Bezmozgis "The Second Strongest Man"
  • Madeleine Thien "Simple Recipes"


This course is an introduction to literature through short stories of various kinds, written in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This extensive survey of stories will explore genres (such as Realism, detective fiction, sensation, the gothic), examine some major artistic movements (e.g. Modernism), and explain some essential elements of critical inquiry. Students will read stories written by over 30 different authors, including Hawthorne, Poe, Twain, Flaubert, James, Kipling, Lawrence, Woolf, Mansfield, Faulkner, Kafka, Hemingway, Singer, Dick and Rushdie. Two longer short stories by George Eliot ("The Sad Fortunes of the Reverend Amos Barton") and James Joyce ("The Dead") will be examined in detail.

A Comprehensive Bibliography of English-Canadian Short Stories, 1950-1983. Main section of the work (Part 2) is a Canadian author index, listing short stories published in both large and small circulation magazines, anthologies, and story collections. Part 1 lists the cited publications and Part 3 is a title index.

From the Books In Canada review by Jeremy Lalonde:

The Voice is the Story persistently champions the short story as a genre. ... [The book] comprises ten interviews with Canadian writers: Edna Alford, Sandra Birdsell, Joan Clark, Timothy Findley, Elisabeth Harvor, Jack Hodgins, Alistair MacLeod, Jane Rule, Carol Shields and Guy Vanderhaeghe. 

In her introduction, Kruk sketches a brief history of the short story in Canada that, while not quite on par with essays by Frank Davey ("Genre Subversion and the Canadian Short Story" [Recherches Anglaises et Nord-Americaines 20 (1987), 7-15.]) and W.H. New ("Back to the Future") [emphasis added], will serve as a useful introduction for most students. ...

This book captures something of the lively debate that surrounds the status of the short story in Canada--a debate that is very much ongoing and shows no signs of abatement.

Hear, hear!

A review by Claire Wilkshire of Alexandra Leggat's Pull Gently, Tear Here (Insomniac Press, 2000) and Dominant Impressions: Essays on the Canadian Short Story (U of Ottawa P n.p. 1999).

On Leggat:

Pull Gently, Tear Here possesses a rare vitality: here is a collection of bright new ideas. How well they work together is a matter for debate, but the innovation makes itself felt.

On Dominant Impressions:

[This title] belongs to the Reappraisals series, critical anthologies collecting the work presented during annual symposia at the University of Ottawa on Canadian literature. This volume includes a fine introduction, which highlights key issues in short story theory and provides in addition an excellent compact history of short fiction in English Canada. The aim of this book, the editors explain, is to counter the notion that the story in Canada began in the 1960s by "addressing the question: What are some of the literary and cultural antecedents of the Canadian short story?" [emphasis added] Eleven scholarly articles respond to this question, bookended by short essays by Bonnie Burnard and Alistair MacLeod.

  • University of Toronto Quarterly - Volume 72, Number 3 Summer 2003.

    An essay by María Jesús Hernáez Lerena on one of the more interesting short story collections from Canada in the past 15 years: Barbara Gowdy's We So Seldom Look On Love (1992):

What astonishes us about Barbara Gowdy's stories is that no matter how thick the thematic web dealing with dismemberment is, when they are read individually, we do not perceive a disfigured world. Characters are endowed with a realistic psychological context. 

See also the bibliography. Here's some of it. Some relatively recent big-name critical tomes highlighted in red:

  • Bailey, Tom, Ed. On Writing Short Stories. New York: Oxford University Press 2000
  • Bakhtin, Mikhail. Rabelais and His World. Trans Helene Iswolsky. Cambridge: MIT Press 1968
  • Bayley, John. The Short Story: From Henry James to Elizabeth Bowen. Brighton: Harvester 1988
  • Beacham, Walton. 'Short Fiction: Towards a Definition.' Critical Survey of Short Fiction. Ed Frank N. Magill. London: Methuen 1981, 1-17
  • Brown, Julie. 'Introduction.' American Women Short Story Writers: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed Julie Brown. New York: Garland 1995, xvi-xxx
  • Brown, Suzanne Hunter. 'The Chronotope of the Short Story: Time, Character, and Brevity.' Creative and Critical Approaches to the Short Story. Ed Noel Harold Kaylor, Jr. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen 1997, 181-213
  • Cheever, John. 'Why I Write Short Stories.' 1978. The Story and Its Writer: An Introduction to Short Fiction. Ed Ann Charters. Boston: Bedford/St Martin's 1999, 1444-46
  • Colombo, John Robert. 'Four Hundred Years of Fantastic Literature in Canada.' Paradis, 28-40
  • 1962. 'Some Aspects of the Short Story.' Trans Naomi Lindstrom. Review of Contemporary Fiction 3 (1983), 27-33
  • Current-García, Eugene, and Walton R. Patrick, eds. What Is the Short Story? Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company 1961
  • Danow, David K. The Spirit of Carnival: Magical Realism and the Grotesque. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky 1995
  • Davey, Frank. 1987. 'Genre Subversion and the Canadian Short Story.' Recherches Anglaises et Nord-Americaines 20 (1987), 7-15.
  • De Lint, Charles. 'Considering Magic Realism in Canada.' Paradis, 113-22
  • Gordimer, Nadine. 'The International Symposium on the Short Story.' Kenyon Review 30 (1968), 457-63
  • Hallet, Cynthia J. 'Minimalism and the Short Story.' Studies in Short Fiction 33: 4 (1996), 487-95
  • Hanson, Clare, ed. Re-reading the Short Story. London: Macmillan 1989
  • Head, Dominic. The Modernist Short Story: A Study in Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1992
  • Hunter, Lynette. 'Introduction.' Narrative Strategies in Canadian Literature: Feminism and Postcolonialism. Ed Coral Ann Howells and Lynette Hunter. Philadelphia: Open University Press 1991, 1-10
  • Kermode, Frank. 1966. The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1968
  • Kosinski, Jerzy. 1974. 'Jerzy Kosinski Interviewed by Jerome Klinkowitz.' The New Fiction: Interviews with Innovative American Writers. Ed Joe David Bellamy. Chicago: University of Illinois Press 1978, 142-68
  • Lohafer, Susan. Coming to Terms with the Short Story. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press 1983
  • Lohafer, Susan, and Jo Ellyn Clarey, eds. Short Story at a Crossroads. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press 1989
  • Lounsberry, Barbara, et al. The Tales We Tell: Perspectives on the Short Story. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood 1998
  • The Short Story: The Reality of Artifice. New York: Twayne 1995
  • 'Prolegomenon to a Generic Study of the Short Story.' Studies in Short Fiction 33: 4 (1996), 461-73
  • May, Charles, E., ed. The New Short Story Theories. Athens: Ohio University Press 1994
  • O'Connor, Frank. 1957. 'On Writing the Short Story.' Current-García and Patrick, 134-36
  • The Lonely Voice: A Study of the Short Story. London: Macmillan 1962
  • Russo, Mary. The Female Grotesque: Risk, Excess and Modernity. New York: Routledge 1994
  • Shaw, Valerie. The Short Story: A Critical Introduction. London: Longman 1983
  • Thompson, Kent. 'Academy Stuff.' How Stories Mean. Ed John Metcalf and J.R. (Tim) Struthers. Erin: Porcupine's Quill 1993, 69-75
  • Trussler, Michael. 'Suspended Narratives: The Short Story and Temporality.' Studies in Short Fiction 33: 4 (1996), 557-77

Michael Bryson is the publisher and editor of The Danforth Review. His story "Six Million Million Miles" appeared in 05: Best Canadian Stories (Oberon Press).







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