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Anthrax is an acute, highly fatal disease, caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. The disease occurs sporadically and can affect all mammals including humans. Animals generally acquire the disease from a contaminated environment. Humans usually acquire this disease directly from infected animals or via occupational exposure to contaminated animal products.

In Canada, anthrax is a reportable disease under the Health of Animals Act, and all cases must be reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

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