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We made use of these valuable secondary sources while developing this site. They are not arranged in standard bibliographical order, but grouped into people, books, and Internet references in order of their usefulness to us.


Walker, James W. St. G., The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press, 1976.

Robertson, Marion, King's Bounty: A History of Early Shelburne Nova Scotia, Halifax NS, Nova Scotia Museum Press, 1983.

Winks, Robin W., The Blacks in Canada: A History (2nd Ed.), Montreal & Kingston, Mcgill-Queens University Press, 1997.

Kaplan, Sidney, The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution 1770-1800, Washington DC, New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1973.

Hodges, Graham Russell, The Black Loyalists Directory, New York, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996.

Burnside, Madeline & Rosemarie Robotham, Spirits of the Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Seventeenth Century, New York NY, Simon & Schuster Editions, 1997.

Mckerrow, P.E. Edited by Frank Stanley Boyd, A Brief History of the Coloured Baptists of Nova Scotia 1783-1895, Halifax NS, Afro-Nova Scotian Enterprises, 1975.

Smith, T. Watson, "The Slave in Canada", Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society for the Years 1896-98 Volume X, Halifax NS, Nova Scotia Printing Company, 1899.

Macdonald, James S., "Memoir of Governor John Parr", Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society Volume XIV, Halifax NS, Nova Scotia Printing Company, 1910, pp. 41-78.


Laird Niven

Laird has been an invaluable resource, and helped supply some of the original documents for transcription. Mr. Niven also was the archaeologist who investigated the various sites in the Birchtown area.

Gladstone Bloomfield

Mr. Bloomfield has been of great assistance in researching the military history of the Black Loyalists. His suggestions and references have helped to correct some common misconceptions, and we are greatly indebted to his assistance.


These links are not guaranteed to work. Sites move, and so does the development team.

Remembering Black Loyalists: Black Communities

This site contains a less comprehensive account of Black Loyalist History, with more focus on present day archaeology and events after the Sierra Leone Exodus.

The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies - Black Loyalists

This site contains transcriptions of dozens of original documents relating to the military history of the Black Loyalists. A great resource for historians.

African in America: Revolution

This web site offers detailed descriptions of the life and times of Black Loyalists during the American Revolution.

Birchtown's History

This site has some details about the area's inhabitants and the visitors section has pictures of the Birchtown area.

Cover of James Walker's Black Loyalists
James Walker's Black Loyalists - probably the best beginning reference about the Black Loyalists. Sadly, it's currently out of print but can be found through online used book brokers.